Easton's Bible Dictionary
of false prophets ( Deuteronomy 18:10 , 18:14 ; Micah
3:6 , 3:7 , 3:11 ), of necromancers ( 1 Samuel 28:8 ), of the Philistine priests
and diviners ( 1 Samuel 6:2 ), of Balaam ( Joshua 13:22 ). Three kinds of divination
are mentioned in Ezekiel 21:21 , by arrows, consulting with images (the teraphim),
and by examining the entrails of animals sacrificed. The practice of this art
seems to have been encouraged in ancient Egypt. Diviners also abounded among the
aborigines of Canaan and the Philistines ( Isaiah 2:6 ; 1 Samuel 28 ). At a later
period multitudes of magicians poured from Chaldea and Arabia into the land of
Israel, and pursued their occupations ( Isaiah 8:19 ; 2 Kings 21:6 ; 2 Chronicles
33:6 ). This superstition widely spread, and in the time of the apostles there
were "vagabond Jews, exorcists" ( Acts 19:13 ), and men like Simon Magus ( Acts
8:9 ), Bar-jesus ( Acts 13:6 , 13:8 ), and other jugglers and impostors ( Acts
19:19 ; 2 Timothy 3:13 ). Every species and degree of this superstition was strictly
forbidden by the law of Moses ( Exodus 22:18 ; Leviticus 19:26 , 19:31 ; 20:27
; Deuteronomy 18:10 , 18:11 ).
But beyond these various forms of superstition, there are instances of divination
on record in the Scriptures by which God was pleased to make known his will.
|(1) There was divination by lot,
by which, when resorted to in matters of moment, and with solemnity, God intimated
his will ( Joshua 7:13 ). The land of Canaan was divided by lot ( Numbers 26:55
, 26:56 ); Achan's guilt was detected ( Joshua 7:16 - 19 ), Saul was elected king
( 1 Samuel 10:20 , 10:21 ), and Matthias chosen to the apostleship, by the solem
lot ( Acts 1:26 ). It was thus also that the scape-goat was determined ( Leviticus
16:8 - 10 ).
(2) There was divination by dreams ( Genesis 20:6 ; Deuteronomy 13:1 , 13:3 ;
Judges 7:13 , 7:15 ; Matthew 1:20 ; 2:12 , 2:13 , 2:19 , 2:22 ). This is illustrated
in the history of Joseph ( Genesis 41:25 - 32 ) and of ( Daniel 2:27 ; 4:19-28
(3) By divine appointment there was also divination by the Urim and Thummim (
Numbers 27:21 ), and by the ephod.
(4) God was pleased sometimes to vouch-safe direct vocal communications to men
( Deuteronomy 34:10 ; Exodus 3:4 ; 4:3 ; Deuteronomy 4:14 , 4:15 ; 1 Kings 19:12
). He also communed with men from above the mercy-seat ( Exodus 25:22 ), and at
the door of the tabernacle ( Exodus 29:42 , 29:43 ).
(5) Through his prophets God revealed himself, and gave intimations of his will
( 2 Kings 13:17 ; Jeremiah 51:63 , 51:64 ).
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
Smith's Bible Dictionary
is a "foretelling future events, or discovering things
secret by the aid of superior beings, or other than human means." It is used in
Scripture of false systems of ascertaining the divine will. It has been universal
in all ages, and all nations alike civilized and savage.
Numerous forms of divination are mentioned, such as
1. divination by rods, ( Hosea 4:12 )
2. divination by arrows, ( Ezekiel 21:21 )
3. divination by cups, ( Genesis 44:5 )
4. consultation of teraphim, ( 1 Samuel 15:23 ; Ezekiel 21:21 ; Zechariah 10:2
5. divination by the liver, ( Ezekiel 21:21 )
6. divination by dreams, ( Deuteronomy 13:2 , 13:3 ; Judges 7:13 ; Jeremiah 23:32
7. consultation of oracles. ( Isaiah 41:21 - 24 ; 44:7 )
Moses forbade every species of divination, because a prying into the future clouds
the mind with superstition, and because it would have been an incentive to idolatry.
But God supplied his people with substitutes for divination which would have rended
it superfluous, and left them in no doubt as to his will in circumstances of danger,
had they continued faithful. It was only when they were unfaithful that the revelation
was withdrawn. ( 1 Samuel 28:6 ; 2 Samuel 2:1 ; 5:23 ) etc.
Superstition not unfrequently goes hand in hand with skepticism, and hence, amid
the general infidelity prevalent throughout the Roman empire at our Lords coming,
imposture was rampant. Hence the lucrative trade of such men as Simon Magus, (
Acts 8:9 ) Bar-jesus, ( Acts 13:6 ) the slave with the spirit of Python, ( Acts
16:16 ) the vagabond jews, exorcists, ( Luke 11:19 ; Acts 19:13 ) and others,
( 2 Timothy 3:13 ; Revelation 19:20 ) etc., as well as the notorious dealers in
magical books at Ephesus. ( Acts 19:19 )
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
Divination is the act of obtaining secret knowledge, especially that which relates
to the future, by means within the reach almost exclusively of special classes
2. Kinds of Divination: Of this there are two main species:
(2) inspirational, or, as it was called in ancient times (Cicero, Lord Bacon,
etc.), natural divination.
Artificial divination depends on the skill of the agent in reading and in interpreting
certain signs called omens. See \AUGURY\. In inspirational or natural divination
the agent is professedly under the immediate influence of some spirit or god who
enables the diviner to see the future, etc., and to utter oracles embodying what
he sees. Among the Romans artificial divination prevailed almost exclusively,
the other having vogue largely among the Greeks, a proof surely of the more spiritual
trend of the Greek mind. Yet that great Roman, Cicero, in his memorable treatise
on Divination, says he agrees with those who take cognizance of these two distinct
kinds of divination. As examples of inspirational divination he instances men
dreaming or in a state of ecstasy (De Divinatione, i. 18). But though Cicero arranges
diviners according to their pretentions, he does not believe in any superhuman
communication. Thus he explains dreams on psychological principles much as modern
psychologists would (op. cit. ii.63). As a matter of fact Cicero was an atheist,
or at least an agnostic.
The Latin word divinatio was confined almost exclusively to divination by outward
signs, though its etymology (deus, "god") suggests that it denoted originally
the other kind--that due to the inspiration of superhuman beings. Chrysippus (died
at Athens 207 BC), though himself a Greek philosopher, defines the word in a way
which would have commanded the approval of nearly every Roman, including Cicero
himself who gives it. "Divination," Cicero makes him say (op. cit. ii.63), is
"a power in man which foresees and explains those signs which the gods throw in
his way." The Greeks were, on the other hand, a more imaginative and emotional
people, and with them inspirational divination held much the larger place. The
Greek (mantis) bears a close resemblance to the Old Testament prophet, for both
claimed to be inspired from without and to be superhumanly informed. The Greek
term for divination (he) mantike (= he mantike techne) has reference to the work
of the mantis, and it hardly ever means divination of the lower sort--that by
means of signs.
3. Fundamental Assumption in Divination:
|(1) The word "divination" itself, from deus, "god," or divus,
"pertaining to god," carries with it the notion that the information obtained
came from deity. Similarly the Greek mantike implies that the message comes to
the mantis from gods or spirits by way of inspiration.
(2) Astrology, or astromancy, is but one form of divination and it rests upon
the ultimate belief that the heavenly bodies are deities controlling the destinies
of men and revealing the future to those who have eyes to see. According to the
Weltanschauung or conception of the universe advocated by Hugo Winckler, Alfred
Jeremias (see The Old Testament in the Light of the East) and others, terrestrial
events are but shadows of the celestial realities (compare Plato's doctrine of
ideas). These latter represented the mind of the gods (see ASTROLOGY secs. 1,2).
(3) On hepatoscopy, or divining from the liver, see below, 6, (2), (c).
(4) It can be proved that among the ancient peoples (Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks,
Romans, etc.) the view prevailed that not only oracles but also omens of all kinds
are given to men by the gods and express the minds of these gods.
4. Legitimate and Illegitimate Divination:
Among the ancient Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans the diviner stood
in the service of the state and was officially consulted before wars and other
great enterprises were undertaken. But among these and other ancient peoples certain
classes of diviners were prohibited by the government from exercising their calling,
probably because they were supposed to be in league with tile gods of other and
hostile nations. The gods of a people were in the beliefs of the time the protectors
of their people and therefore the foes of the foes of their proteges. It is on
this account that witchcraft has been so largely condemned and punished (see WITCHCRAFT).
Necromancy is uniformly forbidden in the Old Testament (see Leviticus 19:31 ;
Deuteronomy 18:11 ; Isaiah 8:19 ; 19:3), probably on account of its connection
with ancestor worship. But among other ancient peoples it was allowed and largely
practiced. Note that the Hebrew words translated (Deuteronomy 18:11) "consulter
with a familiar spirit" and "wizards" denote alike such persons as seek oracles
from the spirits of the dead (see the present writer's Magic, Divination, and
Demonology among the Hebrews, 85). The early Fathers believed that in the divination
of heathenism we have the work of Satan who wished to discredit the true religion
by producing phenomena among pagan races very similar to the prophetical marvels
of the chosen people. This of course rests on a view of the Old Testament prophet
which makes him a "predicter" and little if anything more. See PROPHECY.
5. The Bible and Divination:
The attitude of the Bible toward divination is on the whole distinctly hostile
and is fairly represented by Deuteronomy 18:10, where the prophet of Yahweh is
contrasted with diviners of all kinds as the only authorized medium of supernatural
revelation. Yet note the following:
|(1) Balaam (Numbers 22 - 24) was a heathen diviner whose
words of blessing and of cursing were believed to have magical force, and when
his services are enlisted in the cause of Yahwism, so that, instead of cursing
he blessed Israel, there is not a syllable of disapproval in the narrative.
(2) In Isaiah 3:2 diviners are ranked with judges, warriors and prophets as pillars
of the state. They are associated with prophets and seers in Jeremiah 27:9 ; 29:8
; Ezekiel 22:28 (compare Ezekiel 13:6-9 ; 12:24). It is true that the prophets
and diviners mentioned in these passages use utter falsehoods, saying peace where
there is none; all the same the men called prophets and diviners are classed together
as similar functionaries.
Pure Yahwism in its very basal principle is and must ever have been antagonistic
to divination of every kind, though inspirational divination has resemblances
to prophetism and even affinities with it. Why then does the Bible appear to speak
with two voices, generally prohibiting but at times countenancing various forms
of divination? In the actual religion of the Old Testament we have a syncretism
in which, though Yahwism forms the substructure, there are constituents from the
religions of the native aborigines and the nations around. The underlying thought
in all forms of divination is that by employing certain means men are able to
obtain knowledge otherwise beyond their reach. The religion of Israel made Yahweh
the source of that knowledge and the prophet the medium through which it came
to men. We have an analogous example of syncretism resulting in the union of opposite
elements in ancient Zarathustraism (Zoroastrianism) which, though in its central
principle inconsistent with divination by omens, yet took on from the native Turanian
cults of Persia certain forms of divination, especially that by lot (see Lenormant,
La Divination, 22). Nor should it be forgotten that the Bible is a library and
not a book, and where so many writers, living at widely separated times, have
been at work it is natural to look for diversity of teaching, though no one can
deny that in fundamental matters Bible authors are wonderfully consistent.
6. Modes of Divination Mentioned in the Bible:
For modes of divination in vogue among the ancient Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks,
Romans, etc., see the relevant works and dictionary articles. The species of divination
spoken of in the Bible may be arranged under two heads:
|(1) those apparently sanctioned, and (2) those condemned
in the Bible.
Those Approved and Those Condemned:
(1) Methods of Divination Tacitly or Expressly Sanctioned in the Bible.
|(a) The following are instances of inspirational divination:
|(i) The case of Balaam has already been cited. He was a
Moabite and therefore a heathen soothsayer. His word of blessing or of curse is
so potent that whether he blesses or curses his word secures its own realization.
So far is his vocation from being censured that it is actually called into the
service of Yahweh (see Numbers 22 - 24).
(ii) To dreams the Bible assigns an important place as a legitimate means of revealing
the future. Such dreams are of two kinds:
|(aa) Involuntary or such as come unsought. Even these are
regarded as sent for guidance in human affairs. The bulk of the dreams spoken
of in the Bible belong to this class: see Genesis 20:3 (Abimelech) ; Genesis 28:2
; 31:10 - 14 (Jacob) ; Genesis 37:5 - 9 (Joseph; see \ASTRONOMY\, sec. II, 6);
Genesis 40:5 - 21 (Pharaoh's butler and baker); Genesis 41:1 - 35 (Pharaoh); Judges
7:9 - 14 (Gideon and an unnamed man); Daniel 1:17 (Daniel had understanding of
dreams); Daniel 2:1 - 49 (Nebuchadnezzar's dream and its interpretation by Daniel);
Matthew 1:20 ; 2:13 , 19 f (Joseph, husband of Mary the virgin); Matthew 27:19;
see also Jeremiah 23:25, where the lawfulness of prophetic dreams is assumed (compare
Jeremiah 23:32, where "lying dreams" imply genuine ones). In the document usually
ascribed by modern critics to the Elohist (E), dreams bulk largely as the above
examples serve to show. Among the Babylonians belief in the significance of dreams
gave rise to a science (oneiromancy) so elaborate that only special interpreters
called seers (singular, baru) were considered able to explain them (see Lenormant,
op. cit., 143, for examples).
(bb) The other species of dreams consists of such as are induced by what is called
"incubation," i.e. by sleeping in a sacred place where the god of the place is
believed to reveal his secrets to the sleeper. Herodotus (iv.172) says that the
Nasamonians, an Egyptian tribe, used to practice divination by sleeping in the
graves of their ancestors. The dreams which then came to them were understood
to be revelations of their deified ancestors. See Herod. i.181 for another instance
of incubation in Nineveh. We have a reference to this custom in Isaiah 65:4 ("that
sit among the graves"), where Yahweh enters into judgment with the Jews for their
sin in yielding to this superstition. Solomon's dream (1 Kings 3:5 - 15) came
to him at the high place of Gibeon. See also \DREAM\, \DREAMER\.
(b) But the Bible appears in some places to give its approval to some kinds of
artificial or (as it may be called) ominal divination.
|(i) Sortliege or divination by lot. The use of the lot as
a means of ascertaining the will of Deity is referred to at least without expressed
censure, and, as the present writer thinks, with tacit approval, in many parts
of the Bible. It was by lot that Aaron decided which of the two goats was to be
for Yahweh and which for Azazel (Leviticus 16:7 - 10). It was by lot that the
land of Canaan was divided after the conquest (Numbers 26:56 ; Joshua 18; 19).
For other Biblical instances see Joshua 7:14 (Achan found out by lot); 1 Chronicles
6:54 ; 24:5 ; 25:8 ; 26:13 ; Esther 3:7 ("They cast Pur, that is, the lot"; see
Century Bible in the place cited.); Nehemiah 10:34 ; 11:1 ; Jonah 1:7 ("The lot
fell upon Jonah"); Matthew 27:35; Acts 1:26. In the URIM
AND THUMMIM (which see), as explained by modern scholars, the same principle
is applied, for these two words, though etymologically still obscure, stand for
two objects (pebbles?), one denoting yes or its equivalent, and the other number
Whichever the high priest took from his ephod was believed to be the answer to
the question asked. In all cases it is taken for granted that the lot cast was
an expression and indication of the Divine will. See AUGURY, IV, 3.
(ii) Hydromancy, or divination by water. In Genesis 44:5 Joseph is represented
as practicing this kind of divination and not a word of disapproval is expressed.
See AUGURY, IV, 2.
(iii)We read in the Old Testament of other signs or omens which are implicitly
approved of, thus Judges 6:36 - 40 (Gideon's fleece); 1 Samuel 14:8 - 13 (Jonathan
decides whether or not he is to attack the Philistines by the words which he may
happen to hear them speak).
(2) Modes of Divination Condemned.
The following methods of divination are explicitly or implicitly condemned in
the Old Testament:
|(a) Astromancy (= Astrology). See ASTROLOGY.
(b) Rhabdomancy, or the use of the divining rod, referred to apparently in Hosea
4:12 (which may be paraphrased:
"My people ask counsel of a bit of wood, and the rod made thereof answers their
questions"); Ezekiel 8:17 ("They put a rod (EV "the branch") to their nose").
(c) By an examination of the liver of animals; see Ezekiel 21:21. This mode of
divining, hepatoscopy, as it is has been called, was very widespread among the
Babylonians, Greeks, Romans, etc., of the ancient world, and it is still in vogue
in Borneo, Burma and Uganda. We have no evidence that it was practiced among the
Israelites, for in the above passage it is the king of Babylon (Nebuchadnezzar)
who is said to have "looked in the liver."
Opinions differ as to how the state of the liver could act as an omen. Jastrow
says the liver was considered to be the seat of life, and that where the liver
of the animal sacrificed (generally a sheep) was accepted, it took on the character
of the deity to whom it was offered. The soul of the animal as seen in the liver
became then a reflector of the soul of the god (see EB, XX, 102 f). On the other
hand, Alfred Jeremias says that in the view of the ancient Babylonians the lines
and forms of the sheep's liver were regarded as reflecting the universe and its
history (The Old Testament in the Light of the Ancient East, I, 61). Neither of
these explanations is made probable by its advocates.
(d) By teraphim (compare \TERAPHIM\); see 1 Samuel 15:23 ; Ezekiel 21:21 ; Zechariah
(e) Necromancy, or consulting the dead; see Leviticus 19:31 ; 20:6 ; Deuteronomy
18:11 ; Isaiah 8:19 ; 19:3; see above.
(f) Divination through the sacrifice of children by burning (see Deuteronomy 18:10).
The context makes it almost certain that the words translated "that maketh his
son or his daughter to pass through the fire" (EV; but read and render "that burns
his son or his daughter in the fire") refer to a mode of obtaining an oracle (compare
2 Kings 3:27). The Phoenicians and Carthaginians sacrificed their children to
Kronos in times of grave national danger or calamity (Porphyry Apud Euseb. Praep.
Ev. iv.64,4; Diod. Sic. xx.14).
7. Terms Used in the Old Testament in Connection with Divination:
These are examined in detail in T. Witton Davies' Magic, Divination, and Demonology
among the Hebrews and Their Neighbors. See also the article "Divination" in Encyclopedia
Biblica by the same writer. The following brief notes must suffice here.
|(1) kecem, generally rendered "divination," is a general
term for divination of all kinds. In Ezekiel 21:21 (26) it stands for divination
by arrows while in 1 Samuel 28:8 it is used of divination through the medium of
an 'obh ("familiar spirit"). On the derivation of the word see EB, article "Magic,"
(2) me'onen, probably from a Semitic root (compare Arabic 'anna) which denotes
to emit a hoarse nasal sound such as was customary in reciting the prescribed
formula (see CHARM). For "oak of the me'onim" see AUGUR'S OAK. Some say the word
means one who divines from the clouds, deriving from 'anan, "a cloud," though
nothing in the context suggests this sense, and the same remark applies to the
meaning "one who smites with the evil eye," making the term a denominative from
'ayin, "eye." The usual rendering in the King James Version is plural "observers
of times" and in the Revised Version (British and American) "them that practice
augury" (Deuteronomy 18:10 , 14).
(3) The verb nichesh, of which lichesh, is but a variant, is probably a denominative
from nachash, "a serpent" (l and n interchange in Hebrew), denoting "to hiss,"
"to whisper" (like a serpent), then "to utter divinatory formulas." As it is used
for so many kinds of divination, W. R. Smith concludes that it came to be a general
term for divine. The participle of this verb is translated "enchanter" in Deuteronomy
18:10, the cognate verb, "to use enchantments" in Leviticus 19:26 ; 2 Kings 21:6
; 2 Chronicles 33:6, and the corresponding noun "enchantment" in Numbers 23:23
(4) gazerin, literally, "cutters," i.e. such as kill (in Arab, the cognate verb
= "to slaughter") for the purpose of examining the liver or entrails as omens.
Perhaps the etymology implies "sacrifice," animals being sacrificed as an appeal
to deity. The word occurs only in Daniel (2:27 ; 4:7 (4) ; 5:7 , 11), and is translated
"soothsayers." Some think they were "astrologers," the etymology in that case
referring to the dividing of the heavens with a view, by casting the horoscope,
to forecasting the future.
(5) 'ashshaph (the King James Version "astrologer," the Revised Version (British
and American) "enchanter"), occurs only in Daniel in the Hebrew (1:20 ; 2:2) and
in the Aramaic (2:10 ; 4:4 (7), etc.) parts of the book. The term is probably
taken from the Babylonian and denotes a magician and especially an exorcist rather
than a diviner.
(6) kasda'im, the same word as the Greek (Chaldaioi) (English Verisons, "Chaldeans"),
denotes in Daniel (1:4, etc.) where alone it occurs, not the people so designated
but a class of astrologers. This usage (common in classical writers) arose after
the fall of the Babylonian empire, when the only Chaldeans known were astrologers
and soothsayers. See further, MAGIC. For "spirit of divination" (Acts 16:16) see
8. Divination and Prophecy:
Inspirational divination and Old Testament prophecy have much in common. Both
imply the following conditions:
|(1) the primitive instinct that, craves for secret knowledge,
especially that relating to the future;
(2) the belief that such knowledge is possessed by certain spiritual beings who
are willing on certain terms to impart it;
(3) such secret knowledge is imparted generally to special classes of men (rarely
women) called diviners or (Bab) seers and prophets.
Many anthropologists (Tylor, Frazer, etc.) and Old Testament scholars (Wellhausen,
W. Robertson Smith, etc.) consider prophecy to be but an outgrowth and higher
form of divination. The older theologians almost to a man, and a goodly number
of moderns, take precisely the opposite view, that divination is a corruption
of prophecy. Probably neither view is strictly true. Sometimes in human life we
find evidences of progress from lower to higher. Sometimes the process is the
very reverse. It is important to take notice of the differences as well as the
resemblances between the diviner and the prophet.
|(1) The Old Testament prophet believes in a personal God
whose spokesman he considers himself to be. When he spoke or wrote it was because
he was, at least professedly, inspired and informed by Yahweh. "Thus says Yahweh,"
was the usual formula with which he introduced his oracles. The Greek and Roman
mantis, on the other hand, worked himself up to the necessary ecstatic state by
music, drugs (intoxicants, etc.), sacrificial smoke and the like. Sometimes it
has been thought a sufficient means of divination to swallow the vital portions
of birds and beasts of omen. It was believed that by eating the hearts of crows,
or moles, or of hawks, men took into their bodies the presaging soul of the creature
(Frazer, Golden Bough (NOTE: Separation, distinction: "I will put a division (the
Revised Version, margin "sign of deliverance") between my people and thy people"
(Exodus 8:23). The Hebrew word here is pedhuth =" ransom," "redemption" (compare
Psalms 111:9), but the reading is doubtful. The King James Version and the Revised
Version (British and American) follow Septuagint, Syriac and Vulgate, which render
"set a distinction," perhaps on the basis of a different reading from that of
our Hebrew text.), II, 355).
(2) The mantis practiced his art as a remunerative occupation, charging high fees
and refusing in most cases to ply his calling without adequate remuneration. The
local oracle shrines (Delphi, Clavis, etc.) were worked for personal and political
ends. The Old Testament prophet, on the other hand, claimed to speak as he was
bidden by his God. It was with him a matter of conviction as to what lives men
ought to live, what state of heart they should cultivate. So far from furthering
his own material interests, as he could by saying what kings and other dignitaries
wished to hear, he boldly denounced the sins of the time, even when, as often,
he had to condemn the conduct of kings and the policy of governments. Look, for
example, at Isaiah's fearless condemnation of the conduct of Ahaz in summoning
the aid of Assyria (Isaiah 7), and at the scathing words with which Jeremiah censured
the doings of the nation's leaders in his day (Jeremiah 9:26, etc.), though both
these noble prophets suffered severely for their courage, especially Jeremiah,
who stands out as perhaps the finest recorded example of what, in the face of
formidable opposition, the religious teacher ought ever to be. Of Micaiah ben
Iralab, King Ahab of Israel said, "I hate him; for he doth not prophesy good concerning
me, but evil." What reward did this prophet have for his fidelity to his conscience
and his God? Imprisonment (1 Kings 22:1-35). Had he pleased the king by predicting
a happy, prosperous future that was never to be, he would have been clothed in
gorgeous robes and lodged in a very palace.
In addition to the references above and the full bibliography prefixed to the
present writer's book named above (Magic, etc.), note the following: Bouche-Leclercq,
Histoire de la divination dans l'antiquite; E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture 3,
I, 78-81; 117- 33; II, 155; J. G. Frazer, Golden Bough 2, I, 346; II, 355; III,
342, et passim, and the articles in the principal Bible dictionaries.
T. Witton Davies
bible commentary, bible history, bible reference, bible study, define, divination, foretelling future, forms of divination, prophecy, types of divination