|hev'-'n (heights, elevations)
Easton's Bible Dictionary
The phrase "heaven and earth" is used to indicate the whole universe ( Genesis
1:1 ; Jeremiah 23:24 ; Acts 17:24 ). According to the Jewish notion there were
|(a) The firmament, as "fowls of the heaven" ( Genesis 2:19
; 7:3 , 7:23 ; Psalms 8:8 , etc.), "the eagles of heaven" ( Lamentations 4:19
(b) The starry heavens ( Deuteronomy 17:3 ; Jeremiah 8:2 ; Matthew 24:29 ).
(c) "The heaven of heavens," or "the third heaven" ( Deuteronomy 10:14 ; 1 Kings
8:27 ; Psalms 115:16 ; 148:4 ; 2 Corinthians 12:2 ).
(2) Meaning of words in the original,
|(a) The usual Hebrew word for "heavens" is shamayim , a
plural form meaning "heights," "elevations" ( Genesis 1:1 ; 2:1 ).
(b) The Hebrew word marom is also used ( Psalms 68:18 ; 93:4 ; 102:19 , etc.)
as equivalent to shamayim , "high places," "heights."
(c) Hebrew galgal, literally a "wheel," is rendered "heaven" in Psalms 77:18 (RSV,
(d) Hebrew shahak, rendered "sky" ( Deuteronomy 33:26 ; Job 37:18 ; Psalms 18:11
), plural "clouds" ( Job 35:5 ; 36:28 ; Psalms 68:34 , marg. "heavens"), means
probably the firmament.
(e) Hebrew rakia is closely connected with (d), and is rendered "firmamentum"
in the Vulgate, whence our "firmament" ( Genesis 1:6 ; Deuteronomy 33:26 , etc.),
regarded as a solid expanse.
(3) Metaphorical meaning of term.
Isaiah 14:13 , 14:14 ; "doors of heaven" ( Psalms 78:23 ); heaven "shut" ( 1 Kings
8:35 ); "opened" ( Ezekiel 1:1 ). (See 1 Chronicles 21:16 .)
(4) Spiritual meaning.
The place of the everlasting blessedness of the righteous; the abode of departed
|(a) Christ calls it his "Father's house" ( John 14:2 ).
(b) It is called "paradise" ( Luke 23:43 ; 2 co 12:4 ; Revelation 2:7 ).
(c) "The heavenly Jerusalem" ( Galatians 4: : 26 ; Hebrews 12:22 ; Revelation
(d) The "kingdom of heaven" ( Matthew 25:1 ; James 2:5 ).
(e) The "eternal kingdom" ( 2 Peter 1:11 ).
(f) The "eternal inheritance" ( 1 Peter 1:4 ; Hebrews 9:15 ).
(g) The "better country" ( Hebrews 11:14 , 11:16 ).
(h) The blessed are said to "sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," and to
be "in Abraham's bosom" ( Luke 16:22 ; Matthew 8:11 ); to "reign with Christ"
( 2 Timothy 2:12 ); and to enjoy "rest" ( Hebrews 4:10 , 4:11 ).
In heaven the blessedness of the righteous consists in the possession of "life
everlasting," "an eternal weight of glory" ( 2 Corinthians 4:17 ), an exemption
from all sufferings for ever, a deliverance from all evils ( 2 Corinthians 5:1
, 5:2 ) and from the society of the wicked ( 2 Timothy 4:18 ), bliss without termination,
the "fulness of joy" for ever ( Luke 20:36 ; 2 Corinthians 4:16 , 4:18 ; 1 Peter
1:4 ; 5:10 ; 1 John 3:2 ). The believer's heaven is not only a state of everlasting
blessedness, but also a "place", a place "prepared" for them ( John 14:2 ).
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
Smith's Bible Dictionary
There are four Hebrew words thus rendered in the Old
Testament which we may briefly notice.
(1) Rakia, Authorized Version, firmament. [FIRMAMENT]
(2) Shamayim. This is the word used in the expression "the heaven and the earth,"
or "the upper and lower regions." ( Genesis 1:1 )
(3) Marom, used for heaven in ( Psalms 18:16 ; Isaiah 24:18 ; Jeremiah 25:30 ).
Properly speaking it means a mountain as in ( Psalms 102:19 ; Ezekiel 17:23 )
(4) Shechakim, "expanses," with reference to the extent of heaven. ( Deuteronomy
33:26 ; Job 35:5 ) St. Pauls expression "third heaven," ( 2 Corinthians 12:2 )
had led to much conjecture. Grotius said that the Jews divided the heaven into
three parts, viz.,
|(1) The air or atmosphere, where clouds gather;
(2) The firmament, in which the sun, moon and stars are fixed;
(3) The upper heaven, the abode of God and his angels, the invisible realm of
holiness and happiness the home of the children of God.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
(FROM HEAVEN, NEW)
1. Eschatological Idea:
The formal conception of new heavens and a new earth occurs in Isaiah 65:17 ;
66:22 ; 2 Peter 3:13 ; Revelation 21:1 (where "heaven," singular). The idea in
substance is also found in Isaiah 51:16 ; Matthew 19:28 ; 2 Corinthians 5:17 ;
Hebrews 12:26-28. In each case the reference is eschatological, indeed the adjective
"new" seems to have acquired in this and other connections a semi-technical eschatological
sense. It must be remembered that the Old Testament has no single word for "universe,"
and that the phrase "heaven and earth" serves to supply the deficiency. The promise
of a new heavens and a new earth is therefore equivalent to a promise of world
2. Earliest Conceptions:
Cosmic verses National Type: It is a debated question how old in the history of
revelation this promise is. Isaiah is the prophet with whom the idea first occurs
in explicit form, and that in passages which many critics would assign to the
post-exilic period (the so-called Trito-Isaiah). In general, until recently, the
trend of criticism has been to represent the universalistic-cosmic type of eschatology
as developed out of the particularistic-national type by a gradual process of
widening of the horizon of prophecy, a view which would put the emergence of the
former at a comparatively late date. More recently, however, Gressmann (Der Ursprung
der israelitisch-judischen Eschatologie, 1905) and others have endeavored to show
that often even prophecies belonging to the latter type embody material and employ
means of expression which presuppose acquaintance with the idea of a world-catastrophe
at the end. On this view the world-eschatology would have, from ancient times,
existed alongside of the more narrowly confined outlook, and would be even older
than the latter. These writers further assume that the cosmic eschatology was
not indigenous among the Hebrews, but of oriental (Babylonian) origin, a theory
which they apply not only to the more developed system of the later apocalyptic
writings, but also to its preformations in the Old Testament. The cosmic eschatology
is not believed to have been the distinctive property of the great ethical prophets,
but rather a commonly current mythological belief to which the prophets refer
without formally endorsing it.
3. Different from Mythological Theory:
Its central thought is said to have been the belief that the end of the world-process
must correspond to the beginning, that consequently the original condition of
things, when heaven and earth were new, must repeat itself at some future point,
and the state of paradise with its concomitants return, a belief supposed to have
rested on certain astronomical observations.
4. Antiquity of Cosmical Conception
While this theory in the form presented is unproven and unacceptable, it deserves
credit for having focused attention on certain phenomena in the Old Testament
which clearly show that Messianic prophecy, and particularly the world-embracing
scope which it assumes in some predictions, is far older than modern criticism
had been willing to concede. The Old Testament from the beginning has an eschatology
and puts the eschatological promise on the broadest racial basis (Genesis 3).
It does not first ascend from Israel to the new humanity, but at the very outset
takes its point of departure in the race and from this descends to the election
of Israel, always keeping the Universalistic goal in clear view. Also in the earliest
accounts, already elements of a cosmical universalism find their place side by
side with those of a racial kind, as when Nature is represented as sharing in
the consequences of the fall of man.
5. The Cosmical Dependent on the Ethico-Religious:
As regards the antiquity of the universalistic and cosmical eschatology, therefore,
the conclusions of these writers may be registered as a gain, while on the two
other points of the pagan origin and the unethical character of the expectation
involved, dissent from them should be expressed. According to the Old Testament,
the whole idea of world-renewal is of strictly super-natural origin, and in it
the cosmical follows the ethical hope. The cosmical eschatology is simply the
correlate of the fundamental Biblical principle that the issues of the world-process
depend on the ethico-religious developments in the history of man (compare 2 Peter
6. The End Correspondent to the Beginning:
But the end correspondent to the beginning is likewise a true Scriptural principle,
which theory in question has helped to reemphasize, although there is this difference
that Scripture does not look forward to a repetition of the same process, but
to a restoration of the primeval harmony on a higher plane such as precludes all
further disturbance. In the passages above cited, there are clear reminiscences
of the account of creation (Isaiah 51:16, "that I may plant the heavens, and lay
the foundations of the earth"; Isaiah 65:17, "I create new heavens and a new earth";
2 Peter 3:13 compared with 2 Peter 3:4-6; Revelation 21:1 compared with the imagery
of paradise throughout the chapter). Besides this, where the thought of the renewal
of earth is met with in older prophecy, this is depicted in colors of the state
of paradise (Isaiah 11:6-9 ; Hosea 2:18-21). The "regeneration" (palingenesia)
of Matthew 19:28 also points back to the first genesis of the world. The 'inhabited
earth to come' (oikoumene mellousa) of Hebrews 2:5 occurs at the opening of a
context throughout which the account of Genesis 1-3 evidently stood before the
7. The Cosmical Heavens:
Hebrews 12:26-29: In the combination "new heavens and a new earth," the term "heavens"
must therefore be taken in the sense imposed upon it by the story of creation,
where "heavens" designates not the celestial habitation of God, but the cosmical
heavens, the region of the supernal waters, sun moon and stars. The Bible nowhere
suggests that there is anything abnormal or requiring renewal in God's dwelling-place
(Hebrews 9:23 is of a different import). In Revelation 21, where "the new heaven
and the new earth" appear, it is at the same time stated that the new Jerusalem
comes down from God out of heaven (compare 21:1, 2, 10). In Hebrews 12:26 - 28
also the implication is that only the lower heavens are subject to renewal. The
"shaking" that accompanies the new covenant and corresponds to the shaking of
the law-giving at Sinai, is a shaking of "not the earth only, but also the heaven."
This shaking, in its reference to heaven as well as to earth, signifies a removal
of the things shaken. But from the things thus shaken and removed (including heaven),
the writer distinguishes "those things which are not shaken," which are destined
to remain, and these are identified with the kingdom of God. The kingdom of God,
however, according to the general trend of the teaching of the epistle, has its
center in the heavenly world. The words "that have been made," in Hebrews 12:27,
do not assign their created character as the reason why heaven and earth can be
shaken, an exegesis which would involve us in the difficulty that among that which
remains there is something uncreated besides God; the true construction and correct
paraphrase are: "as of things that were made with the thought in the mind of God
that those things which cannot be shaken may remain," i.e. already at creation
God contemplated an unchangeable universe as the ultimate, higher state of things.
Matthew 19:28: In Matthew 19:28 the term palingenesia marks the world-renewing
as the renewal of an abnormal state of things. The Scripture teaching, therefore,
is that around the center of God's heaven, which is not subject to deterioration
or renewal, a new cosmical heaven and a new earth will be established to be the
dwelling-place of the eschatological humanity. The light in which the promise
thus appears reminds us that the renewed kosmos, earth as well as cosmical heavens,
is destined to play a permanent (not merely provisional, on the principle of chiliasm)
part in the future life of the people of God. This is in entire harmony with the
prevailing Biblical representation, not only in the Old Testament but likewise
in the New Testament (compare Matthew 5:5 ; Hebrews 2:5), although in the Fourth
Gospel and in the Pauline Epistles the emphasis is to such an extent thrown on
the heaven-centered character of the future life that the role to be played in
it by the renewed earth recedes into the background. Revelation, on the other
hand, recognizes this element in its imagery of "the new Jerus" coming down from
God out of heaven upon earth.
9. A Purified Universe:
That the new heavens and the new earth are represented as the result of a "creation"
does not necessarily involve a production ex nihilo. The terms employed in 2 Peter
3:6 - 13 seem rather to imply that the renewal will out of the old produce a purified
universe, whence also the catastrophe is compared to that of the Deluge. As then
the old world perished by water and the present world arose out of the flood,
so in the end-crisis "the heavens shall be dissolved by fire and the elements
melt with fervent heat," to give rise to the new heaven and the new earth in which
righteousness dwells. The term palingenesia (Matthew 19:28) points to renewal,
not to creation de novo. The Talmud also teaches that the world will pass through
a process of purification, although at the same time it seems to break up the
continuity between this and the coming world by the fantastic assumption that
the new heavens and the new earth of Isaiah 65:17 were created at the close of
the Hexemeron of Genesis 1. This was inferred from the occurrence of the article
in Isaiah 66:22, "the new heavens and the new earth."
(FROM ASTRONOMY III)
4. The Windows of Heaven:
Thus in the account of the Flood, "the windows of heaven" are said to have been
opened. But, 'arubbah, "window," means a network, or lattice, a form which can
never have been ascribed to a literal floodgate; and in the other passages where
"the windows of heaven" are mentioned the expression is obviously metaphorical
(2 Kings 7:2,19; Isaiah 24:18; Malachi 3:10).
hev'-'nz (shamayim; ouranoi):
On the physical heavens see ASTRONOMY; WORLD. Above these, in popular conception,
were the celestial heavens, the abode of God and of the hosts of angels (Psalms
11:4 ; 103:19 - 21 ; Isaiah 66:1 ; Revelation 4:2 ; 5:11 ; compare Daniel 7:10),
though it was recognized that Yahweh's presence was not confined to any region
(1 Kings 8:27). Later Judaism reckoned seven heavens. The apostle Paul speaks
of himself as caught up into "the third heaven," which he evidently identifies
with Paradise (2 Corinthians 12:2).
hev'-'n-li (ouranios, epouranios):
Pertaining to heaven or the heavens. See HEAVENS. The phrase ta epourania, translated
"heavenly things" in John 3:12 ; Hebrews 8:5 ; 9:23, but in Ephesians "heavenly
places" (John 1:3 , 10 ; 2:6 ; 3:10 ; 6:12), has shades of meaning defined by
the context. In John 3:12, in contrast with "earthly things" (i.e. such as can
be brought to the test of experience), it denotes truths known only through revelation
(God's love in salvation). In Hebrews the sense is local. In Ephesians it denotes
the sphere of spiritual privilege in Christ, except in 6:12, where it stands for
the unseen spiritual world, in which both good and evil forces operate. It is
always the sphere of the super-earthly.
bible commentary, bible history, bible reference, bible study, define, firmament, galgal, heaven, marom, rakia, shahak, shamayim, shechakim