Easton's Bible Dictionary
(1) Generally "Huram," one of the sons of Bela ( 1 Chronicles 8:5 ).
(2) Also "Huram" and "Horam," king of Tyre. He entered into an alliance with David,
and assisted him in building his palace by sending him able workmen, and also
cedar-trees and fir-trees from Lebanon ( 2 Samuel 5:11 ; 1 Chronicles 14:1 ).
After the death of David he entered into a similar alliance with Solomon, and
assisted him greatly in building the temple ( 1 Kings 5:1 ; 9:11 ; 2 Chronicles
2:3 ). He also took part in Solomon's traffic to the Eastern Seas ( 1 Kings 9:27
; 10:11 ; 2 Chronicles 8:18 ; 9:10 ).
(3) The "master workman" whom Hiram sent to Solomon. He was the son of a widow
of Dan, and of a Tyrian father. In 2 Chronicles 2:13 "Huram my father" should
be Huram Abi, the word "Abi" (rendered here "my father") being regarded as a proper
name, or it may perhaps be a title of distinction given to Huram, and equivalent
to "master." (Compare 1 Kings 7:14 ; 2 Chronicless 4:16 .) He cast the magnificent
brazen works for Solomon's temple in clay-beds in the valley of Jordan, between
Succoth and Zarthan.
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
exaltation of life; a destroyer
Smith's Bible Dictionary
(1) The king of Tyre who sent workmen and materials to Jerusalem, first, ( 2 Samuel
5:11 ; 1 Chronicles 14:1 ) to build a palace for David (B.C. 1064), whom he ever
loved, ( 1 Kings 5:1 ) and again, 1 Kings 5:10 ; 7:13 ; 2 Chronicles 2:16 to build
the temple for Solomon, with whom he had a treaty of peace and commerce ( 1 Kings
5:11 , 5:12 ) He admitted Solomons ships issuing from Joppa, to a share in the
profitable trade of the Mediterranean, ( 1 Kings 10:22 ) and the Jewish sailors,
under the guidance of Tyrians, were taught to bring the gold of India, ( 1 Kings
9:26 ) to Solomons two harbors on the Red Sea.
(2) Hiram was the name of a man of mixed race, ( 1 Kings 7:13 , 7:40 ) the principal
architect and engineer sent by King Hiram to Solomon.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
hi'-ram (chiram; Septuagint Chiram, but Cheiram, in 2
Samuel 5:11; 1 Chronicles 14:1):
There is some confusion regarding the form of this name. In the books of Samuel
and Kings the prevailing form is "Hiram" (chiram); but in 1 Kings 5:10 , 18 margin
(Hebrew 24 , 32); 7:40 margin "Hirom" (chirom) is found. In Chronicles the form
of the word is uniformly "Huram" (churam).
(1) A king of Tyre who lived on most friendly terms with both David and
Solomon. After David had taken the stronghold of Zion, Hiram sent messengers and
workmen and materials to build a palace for him at Jerusalem (2 Samuel 5:11 ;
1 Chronicles 14:1). Solomon, on his accession to the throne, made a league with
Hiram, in consequence of which Hiram furnished the new king of Israel with skilled
workmen and with cedar trees and fir trees and algum trees from Lebanon for the
building of the Temple. In return Solomon gave annually to Hiram large quantities
of wheat and oil (1 Kings 5:1 (Hebrew 15); 2 Chronicles 2:3 (Hebrew 2)). "At the
end of twenty years, wherein Solomon had built the two houses, the house of Yahweh
and the king's house," Solomon made a present to Hiram of twenty cities in the
land of Galilee. Hiram was not at all pleased with these cities and contemptuously
called them "Cabul." His displeasure, however, with this gift does not seem to
have disturbed the amicable relations that had hitherto existed between the two
kings, for subsequently Hiram sent to the king of Israel 120 talents of gold (1
Kings 9:10 - 14). Hiram and Solomon maintained merchant vessels on the Mediterranean
and shared mutually in a profitable trade with foreign ports (1 Kings 10:22).
Hiram's servants, "shipmen that had knowledge of the sea," taught the sailors
of Solomon the route from Ezion-geber and Eloth to Ophir, whence large stores
of gold were brought to King Solomon (1 Kings 9:26 ; 2 Chronicles 8:17).
Josephus (Apion, I, 17, 18) informs us, on the authority of the historians Dius
and Menander, that Hiram was the son of Abibal, that he had a prosperous reign
of 34 years, and died at the age of 53. He tells us on the same authority that
Hiram and Solomon sent problems to each other to solve; that Hiram could not solve
those sent him by Solomon, whereupon he paid to Solomon a large sum of money,
as had at first been agreed upon. Finally, Abdemon, a man of Tyre, did solve the
problems, and proposed others which Solomon was unable to explain; consequently
Solomon was obliged to pay back to Hiram a vast sum of money. Josephus further
states (Ant., VIII, ii, 8) that the correspondence carried on between Solomon
and Hiram in regard to the building of the Temple was preserved, not only in the
records of the Jews, but also in the public records of Tyre. It is also related
by Phoenician historians that Hiram gave his daughter to Solomon in marriage.
(2) The name of a skillful worker in brass and other substances, whom Solomon
secured from Hiram king of Tyre to do work on the Temple. His father was a brass-worker
of Tyre, and his mother was a woman of the tribe of Naphtali (1 Kings 7:14), "a
woman of the daughters of Dan" (2 Chronicles 2:14); 1 Kings 7:13 ; 2 Chronicles
2:13 f (Hebrew 12 , 13)).
Jesse L. Cotton
bible commentary, bible history, bible reference, bible study, define, hiram, hirom, huram, king of tyre, solomon worker, the temple