Easton's Bible Dictionary
hired ( Genesis 30:18 ). "God hath given me," said Leah,
"my hire (Heb. sekhari)...and she called his name Issachar." He was Jacob's ninth
son, and was born in Padan-aram (comp Genesis 28:2 ). He had four sons at the
going down into Egypt ( Genesis 46:13 ; Numbers 26:23 , 26:25 ).
Issachar, Tribe of, during the journey through the wilderness, along with Judah
and Zebulun ( Numbers 2:5 ), marched on the east of the tabernacle. This tribe
contained 54,400 fighting men when the census was taken at Sinai. After the entrance
into the Promised Land, this tribe was one of the six which stood on Gerizim during
the ceremony of the blessing and cursing ( Deuteronomy 27:12 ). The allotment
of Issachar is described in Joshua 19:17-23 . It included the plain of Esdraelon
(=Jezreel), which was and still is the richest portion of Palestine ( Deuteronomy
33:18 Deuteronomy 33:19 ; 1 Chronicles 12:40 ).
The prophetic blessing pronounced by Jacob on Issachar corresponds with that of
Moses ( Genesis 49:14 , 49:15 ; Compare Deuteronomy 33:18 , 33:19 ).
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
Smith's Bible Dictionary
(1) (reward). I. The ninth son of Jacob and the fifth
of Leah. ( Genesis 30:17 , 30:18 ) (B.C. 1753 - 45) At the descent into Egypt
four sons are ascribed to him, who founded the four chief families of the tribes.
( Genesis 46:13 ; Numbers 26:23 , 26:25 ; 1 Chronicles 7:1 ) The number of the
fighting men of Issachar, when taken in the census at Sinai, was 54,400. During
the journey they seem to have steadily increased. The allotment of Issachar lay
above that of Manasseh. ( Joshua 19:17 - 23 ) In the words of Josephus, "it extended
in length from Carmel to the Jordan, in breadth to Mount Tabor." This territory
was, as it still is, among the richest land in Palestine. It is this aspect of
the territory of Issachar which appears to be alluded to in the blessing of Jacob.
(2) A Korhite (Korahite) Levite, one of the door-keepers of the house of Jehovah,
seventh son of Obed-edom. ( 1 Chronicles 26:5 )
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
is'-a-kar (yissa(se)khar; Septuagint, Swete Issachar;
Tischendorf, Issachar, so also in the New Testament, Tregelles, and Westcott and
Hort, The New Testament in Greek):
(1) The 9th son of Jacob, the 5th borne to him by Leah (Genesis 30:17).
1. The Name:
His birth is in this passage connected with the strange story of Reuben and his
mandrakes, and the name given him is apparently conceived as derived from 'ish
sakhar, "a hired workman." There is a play upon the name in this sense in Genesis
49:15, "He bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant under taskwork." Wellhausen
(Textder Buch. Sam., 95) thinks that the second element of the name may denote
a deity; and Sokar, an Egyptian god, has been suggested. The name in that case
would mean "worshipper of Sokar." Practically nothing is preserved of the personal
history of this patriarch beyond his share in the common actions of the sons of
Jacob. Four sons were born to him before Jacob's family removed to Egypt (Genesis
46:13). In that land he died and was buried.
2. The Tribe:
At Sinai the tribe numbered 54,000 men of war over 20 years of age (Numbers 1:29).
At the end of the wanderings the numbers had grown to 64,300 (Numbers 26:25).
In the days of David, the Chronicler puts the figures at 87,000 (1 Chronicles
7:5). See NUMBERS. The place of Issachar in the desert-march was with the standard
of the tribe of Judah (along with Zebulun) on the East side of the tabernacle
(Numbers 2:5), this group forming the van of the host (Numbers 10:14). The rabbis
say that this standard was of 3 colors, sardine, topaz and carbuncle, on which
were inscribed the names of the 3 tribes, bearing the figure of a lion's whelp
(Tg, pseudo. Jon. on Numbers 2:3). The captain of the tribe was Nethanel ben-Zuar
(Numbers 1:8, etc.). Later this place was held by Igal ben-Joseph, the tribal
representative among the spies (Numbers 13:7). The prince chosen from Issachar
to assist in the division of the land was Paltiel ben-Azzan (Numbers 34:26). The
position of Issachar at the strange ceremony near Shechem was on Mt. Gerizim,
"to bless the people" (Deuteronomy 27:12).
3. The Tribal Territory:
Sixteen cities of Issachar are mentioned in Joshua 19:17, but the only indications
of boundaries are Tabor in the North and Jordan in the East. We gather elsewhere
that the territory of this tribe marched on the North with Zebulun and Naphtali
(Joshua 19:11 , 33); on the West with Manasseh and possibly Asher (Joshua 17:10);
and on the South with Manasseh (Joshua 17:11). It does not seem to have had any
point of contact with the sea. The portion of Issachar, therefore, included the
plain of Esdraelon, Tabor, the hill of Moreh, and the slopes East to the Jordan.
The fortresses along the South edge of the plain were held by Manasseh. Tola,
a man of Issachar, held Shamir, a stronghold in Mt. Ephraim (Judges 10:1). To
Manasseh was given Beth-shean with her "towns" (Joshua 17:11). No reliable line
can be drawn for the South border. The district thus indicated was small; but
it embraced some of the most fruitful land in Palestine. By the very riches of
the soil Issachar was tempted. "He saw a resting-place that it was good, and the
land that it was pleasant; and he bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant
under taskwork" (Genesis 49:15). "The mountain" in Deuteronomy 33:19 may possibly
be Tabor, on which, most likely, there was an ancient sanctuary and place of pilgrimage.
This would certainly be associated with a market, in which Issachar and Zebulun,
the adjoining tribes, would be able to enrich themselves by trade with the pilgrims
from afar. Issachar took part in the battle with Sisera (Judges 5:15). To Israel
Issachar gave one judge, Tola (Judges 10:1), and two kings, Baasha and his son
(1 Kings 15:27, etc.).
4. Men of Issachar:
Of the 200 "heads" of the men of Issachar who came to David at Hebron it is said
that they were "men that had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought
to do" (1 Chronicles 12:32). According to the Targum, this meant that they knew
how to ascertain the periods of the sun and moon, the intercalation of months,
the dates of solemn feasts, and could interpret the signs of the times. A company
from Issachar came to the celebration of the Passover when it was restored by
Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 30:18). Issachar has a portion assigned to him in Ezekiel's
ideal division of the land (Ezekiel 48:25); and he appears also in the list in
Revelation (Revelation 7:7).
(2) A Korahite doorkeeper, the 7th son of Obededom (1 Chronicles 26:5).
9th son of jacob (by leah), bible commentary, bible history, bible reference, bible study, define, 'ish sakhar, issachar, korahite doorkeeper