|jo'-ab (paternity; voluntary, whose father is Jehovah, Yahweh is father)
RELATED: Abner, Absalom, Amasa, Asahel, David, Seraiah, Solomon, Tekoa, Uriah
Easton's Bible Dictionary
Jehovah is his father.
(1) One of the three sons of Zeruiah, David's sister, and "captain of the host"
during the whole of David's reign ( 2
Samuel 2:13 ; 10:7
Kings 11:15 ). His father's name is nowhere mentioned, although his sepulchre
at Bethlehem is mentioned ( 2
Samuel 2:32 ). His two brothers were Abishai and Asahel, the swift of foot,
who was killed by Abner ( 2
Samuel 2:13 - 32
), whom Joab afterwards treacherously murdered ( 2
Samuel 3:22 - 27
). He afterwards led the assault at the storming of the fortress on Mount Zion,
and for this service was raised to the rank of "prince of the king's army" ( 2
Samuel 5:6 - 10
Chronicles 27:34 ). His chief military achievements were, (1) against the
allied forces of Syria and Ammon; (2) against Edom ( 1
Kings 11:15 , 11:16
); and (3) against the Ammonites ( 2
Samuel 10:7 - 19
His character is deeply stained by the part he willingly took in the murder of
Uriah ( 2
Samuel 11:14 - 25
). He acted apparently from a sense of duty in putting Absalom to death ( 2
Samuel 18:1 - 14
). David was unmindful of the many services Joab had rendered to him, and afterwards
gave the command of the army to Amasa, Joab's cousin ( 2
Samuel 20:1 - 13
). When David was dying Joab espoused the cause of Adonijah in preference to that
of Solomon. He was afterwards slain by Benaiah, by the command of Solomon, in
accordance with his father's injunction ( 2
Samuel 3:29 ; 20:5
), at the altar to which he had fled for refuge. Thus this hoary conspirator died
without one to lift up a voice in his favour. He was buried in his own property
in the "wilderness," probably in the north-east of Jerusalem ( 1
Kings 2:5 , 2:28
). Benaiah succeeded him as commander-in-chief of the army.
Chronicles 4:14 .
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
Smith's Bible Dictionary
(whose father is Jehovah)
(1) The most remarkable of the three nephews of David, the children of Zeruiah,
Davids sister. (B.C. 1053-1012.) Joab first appears after Davids accession to
the throne at Hebron. Abner slew in battle Asahel, the youngest brother of Joab;
and when David afterward received Abner into favor, Joab treacherously murdered
him. [ABNER] There was now no rival left in the way of Joabs advancement, and
at the siege of Jebus he was appointed for his prowess commander-in-chief --"captain
of the host." In the wide range of wars which David undertook, Joab was the acting
general. He was called by the almost regal title of "lord," ( 2 Samuel 11:11 )
"the prince of the kings army." ( 1 Chronicles 27:34 ) In the entangled relations
which grew up in Davids domestic life he bore an important part, successfully
reinstating Absalom in Davids favor after the murder of Amnon. ( 2 Samuel 14:1
- 20 ) When the relations between father and son were reversed by the revolt of
Absalom, Joab remained true to the king, taking the rebel princes dangerous life
in spite of Davids injunction to spare him, and when no one else had courage to
act so decisive a part. ( 2 Samuel 18:2 , 18:11 - 15 ) (B.C. 1023). The king transferred
the command to Amasa, which so enraged Joab that he adroitly assassinated Amasa
when pretending to welcome him as a friend. ( 2 Samuel 20:10 ) Friendly relations
between himself and David seem to have existed afterward, ( 2 Samuel 24:2 ) but
at the close of his long life, his loyalty, so long unshaken, at last wavered.
"Though he had not turned after Absalom, he turned after Adonijah." ( 1 Kings
2:28 ) This probably filled up the measure of the kings long-cherished resentment.
The revival of the pretensions of Adonijah after Davids death was sufficient to
awaken the suspicions of Solomon. Joab fled to the shelter of the altar at Gibeon,
and was here slain by Benaiah. (B.C. about 1012.)
(2) One of Kenazs descendants. ( 1 Chronicles 4:14 )
(3) ( Ezra 2:6 ; 8:9 ; Nehemiah 7:11 )
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
jo'-ab (yo'-abh, "Yahweh is father"; Ioab):
(1) Son of Zeruiah, David's sister. He was "captain of the host" (compare 2 Samuel 19:13) under David.
1. Joab and Abner:
|(a) Joab is first introduced in the narrative of the war
with Abner, who supported the claims of Ishbosheth to the throne against those
of David (2 Samuel 2:8 - 3:1). The two armies met, and on Abner's suggestion a
tournament took place between 12 men from each side; a general engagement follows,
and in this Joab's army is victorious. Asahel, Joab's brother, is killed in his
pursuit of Abner, but the latter's army is sorely pressed, and he appeals to Joab
for a cessation of hostilities. Joab calls a halt, but declares that he would
not cease had Abner not made his plea.
(b) 2 Samuel 3:12-29. Abner visits David at Hebron, and makes an alliance with
David. He then leaves the town, apparently under royal protection. Joab is absent
at the time, but returns immediately after Abner's departure, and expostulates
with David for not avenging Asahel's death, and at the same time attributes a
bad motive to Abner's visit. He sends a message, no doubt in the form of a royal
command, for Abner to return; the chief does so, is taken aside "into the midst
of the gate" (or as Septuagint and commentators read, "into the side of the gate,"
2 Samuel 3:27), and slain there by Joab. David proclaims his own innocence in
the matter, commands Joab as well as the people to mourn publicly for the dead
hero (2 Samuel 3:31), composes a lament for Abner, and pronounces a curse upon
Joab and his descendants (2 Samuel 3:30 is regarded as an editorial note, and
commentators change 2 Samuel 3:39).
2. The Ammonite War:
Death of Uriah:
|(a) 2 Samuel 10:1 - 14 ; 1 Chronicles 19:1 - 15. David sends
ambassadors with his good wishes to Hanun on his ascending the throne of the Ammonites;
these are ill-treated, and war follows, David's troops being commanded by Joab.
On finding himself placed between the Ammonites on the one hand, and their Syrian
allies on the other, he divides his army, and himself leads one division against
the Syrians, leaving Abishai, his brother, to fight the Ammonites; the defeat
of the Syrians is followed by the rout of the ammonites.
(b) 2 Samuel 10:15 - 19 ; 1 Chronicles 19:16 - 19 describes a second war between
Hadarezer and David. Joab is not mentioned here.
(c) 2 Samuel 11:1 narrates the resumption of the war against the Ammonites; Joab
is in command, and the town of Rabbah is besieged. Here occurs the account of
David's sin with Bathsheba, omitted by Chronicles. David gets Joab to send Uriah,
her husband, to Jerusalem, and when he refuses to break the soldier's vow (2 Samuel
11:6 - 13), Joab is used to procure Uriah's death in the siege, and the general
then sends news of it to David (2 Samuel 11:14-27). After capturing the 'water-city'
of Rabbah, Joab sends for David to complete the capture and lead the triumph himself
(2 Samuel 12:26 - 29).
3. Joab and Absalom:
|(a) The next scene depicts Joab attempting and succeeding
in his attempt to get Absalom restored to royal favor. He has noticed that "the
king's heart is toward Absalom" (2 Samuel 14:1), and so arranges for "a
wise woman" of Tekoa to bring a supposed complaint of her own before the
king, and then rebuke him for his treatment of Absalom. The plan succeeds. David
sees Joab's hand in it, and gives him permission to bring Absalom to Jerusalem.
But the rebel has to remain in his own house, and is not allowed to see his father
(2 Samuel 14:1 - 24).
(b) Absalom attempts to secure Joab's intercession for a complete restoration
to his father's confidence. Joab turns a deaf ear to the request until his field
is put on fire by Absalom's command. He then sees Absalom, and gets David to receive
his prodigal son back into the royal home (2 Samuel 14:28 - 33).
(c) Absalom revolts, and makes Amasa, another nephew of David, general instead
of Joab (2 Samuel 17:24). David flees to Mahanaim, followed by Absalom. Joab is
given a third of the army, the other divisions being led by Abishai and Ittai.
He is informed that Absalom has been caught in a tree (or thicket), and expostulates
with the informer for not having killed him. Although he is reminded of David's
tender plea that Absalom be kindly dealt with, he dispatches the rebel himself,
and afterward calls for a general halt of the army. When David gives vent to his
feelings of grief, he is sternly rebuked by Joab, and the rebuke has its effect
(2 Samuel 17:1 - 19:8).
4. Joab and Amasa:
2 Samuel 19:8b - 15. On David's return to Jerusalem, Amasa is made "captain of
the host" instead of Joab (2 Samuel 19:13). Then Sheba revolts, Amasa loses time
in making preparation for quelling it, and Abishai is bidden by David to take
the field (2 Samuel 20:6). The Syriac version reads "Joab" for "Abishai" in this
verse, and some commentators follow it, but Septuagint supports Massoretic Text.
Joab seems to have accompanied Abishai; and when Amasa meets them at Gibeon, Joab,
on pretense of kissing his rival, kills him. He then assumes command, is followed
by Amasa's men, and arranges with a woman of Abel beth-maacah to deliver to him
Sheba's head. The revolt is then at an end.
5. Joab's Death:
Joab subsequently opposed David's suggestion of a census, but eventually carried
it out (2 Samuel 24:1 - 9 ; 1 Chronicles 21:1 - 6), yet 1 Chronicles 21:6 and
27:24 relate that he did not carry it out fully. He was one of Adonijah's supporters
in his claim to the throne (1 Kings 1:7 , 19 , 41). For this he had to pay the
penalty with his life, being slain at the altar in the "Tent of Yahweh" (1 Kings
2:28-34) by Benaiah, who acted upon Solomon's orders. His murderer became his
successor as head of the army. 1 Kings 2:5 makes David advise Solomon not to forget
that Joab slew Abner and Amasa, and 1 Kings 11:14 - 22 contains a reference to
the dread of his name in Edom. 1 Chronicles 11:6 makes him win his spurs first
at the capture of Jerusalem, but 2 Samuel 2; 3 are previous in time to this event
(compare 2 Samuel 5:6 - 10), and 1 Chronicles 11:8 makes him repair the city,
while 1 Chronicles 26:28 refers to a dedication of armor by him.
6. Joab's Character:
In summing up Joab's character, we must remember the stirring times in which he
lived. That he was a most able general, there is no doubt. He was, however, very
jealous of his position, and this accounts for Amasa's murder, if not partially
for that of Abner too: if he was afraid that Abner would supplant him, that fear
may be held to be justified, for Amasa, who had not been too loyal to David did
take Joab's place for a time. But blood revenge for Asahel's death was perhaps
the chief cause. Yet even when judged in the light of those rough times, and in
the light of eastern life, the murder of Abner was a foul, treacherous deed (see
Trumbull, Studies in Oriental Social Life, 129-31).
Joab opposed the census probably because it was an innovation. His rebuke of David's
great grief over Absalom's death can only be characterized as just; he is the
stern warrior who, after being once merciful and forgiving, will not again spare
a deceitful rebel; and yet David shows how a father's conduct toward a prodigal,
rebellious son is not regulated by stern justice. Joab's unswerving loyalty to
David leads one to believe that no disloyalty was meant by his support of Adonijah,
who was really the rightful heir to the throne. But their plans were defeated
by those of the harem, and Joab had to pay the price with his life.
Taken as a whole, his life, as depicted in the very reliable narrative of 2 Samuel
and 1 Kings, may be said to be as characteristic of the times as that of David
himself, with a truly Homeric ring about it. He was a great man, great in military
prowess and also in personal revenge, in his loyalty to the king as well as in
his stern rebuke of his royal master. He was the greatest of David's generals,
and the latter's success and glory owed much to this noblest of that noble trio
whom Zeruiah bore.
(2) A Judahite, father or founder of Ge-harashim (1 Chronicles 4:14, "valley of craftsmen" the Revised Version margin).
(3) A family of returned exiles (Ezra 2:6 parallel Nehemiah 7:11 ; Ezra 8:9 ; 1 Esdras 8:35).
(4) See ATROTH-BETH-JOAB.
David Francis Roberts
abner (murder of), absalom, amasa, bible commentary, bible history, bible reference, bible study, captain of the host, define, joab, nephews of david, prince of the king's army, uriah