Easton's Bible Dictionary
(1) A place in the extreme south of Judah ( Joshua 15:23 ). Probably the same
as Kadesh-barnea (q.v.).
(2) A city of Issachar ( 1 Chronicles 6:72 ). Possibly Tell Abu Kadeis, near Lejjun.
(3) A "fenced city" of Naphtali, one of the cities of refuge ( Joshua 19:37 ;
Judges 4:6 ). It was assigned to the Gershonite Levites ( Joshua 21:32 ). It was
originally a Canaanite royal city ( Joshua 12:22 ), and was the residence of Barak
( Judges 4:6 ); and here he and Deborah assembled the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali
before the commencement of the conflict with Sisera in the plain of Esdraelon,
"for Jehovah among the mighty" (Judges 4:9 , 10). In the reign of Pekah it was
taken by Tiglath-Pileser ( 2 Kings 15:29 ). It was situated near the "plain" (rather
"the oak") of Zaanaim, and has been identified with the modern Kedes, on the hills
fully four miles north-west of Lake El Huleh.
It has been supposed by some that the Kedesh of the narrative, where Barak assembled
his troops, was not the place in Upper Galilee so named, which was 30 miles distant
from the plain of Esdraelon, but Kedish, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, 12
miles from Tabor.
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
Smith's Bible Dictionary
(1) In the extreme south of Judah, ( Joshua 15:23 ) same as Kadesh and Kadesh-barnea.
(2) A city of Issachar, allotted to the Gershonite Levites. ( 1 Chronicles 6:72
) The Kadesh mentioned among the cities whose kings were slain by Joshua, ( Joshua
12:22 ) in company with Megiddo and Jokneam of Carmel, would seem to have been
this city of Issachar.
(3) Kedesh; also Kedesh in Galilee; and once, ( Judges 4:6 ) Kedesh-naphtali,
one of the fortified cities of the tribe of Naphtali, named between Hazor and
Edrei, ( Joshua 19:37 ) appointed as a city of refuge, and allotted with its "suburbs"
to the Gershonite Levites. ( Joshua 20:7 ; 21:32 ; 1 Chronicles 6:76 ) It was
the residence of Barak, ( Judges 4:6 ) and there he and Deborah assembled the
tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali before the conflict, being probably, as its name
implies, a "holy place" of great antiquity. It was taken by Tiglath-pileser in
the reign of Pekah. ( 2 Kings 15:29 ) It is identified with the village Kades
, which lies four miles to the northwest of the upper part of the Sea of Merom.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
ke'-desh (qedhesh; Kades):
(1) One of the "uttermost cities" of Judah "toward the border of Edom in the South" (Joshua 15:23).
Possibly it is to be identified with KADESH-BARNEA (which see); otherwise it is
strange that this latter should be omitted from the list. Dillmann would identify
it with Kadus, to the South of Hebron, mentioned by Muqaddasi.
(2) A town in the territory of Issachar, given to the Gershonite Levites (1 Chronicles 6:72).
In the list of Joshua (21:28) its place is taken by KISHION (which see). Conder
suggests identification with Tell Abu Qades, near Megiddo.
(3) Kedesh-naphtali, the famous city of refuge in the uplands of Naphtali.
It is called "Kedesh," simply, in Joshua 12:22, etc.;
Kedesh-naphtali in Judges 4:6 ; Tobit 1:2; Kedesh in Galilee in Joshua 20:7, etc.
It was assigned to the Gershonite Levites (1 Chronicles 6:76). From the name "holy,"
we gather that it was a sanctuary from old time. It was therefore a place of asylum,
and only preserved its ancient character in this respect when chosen as one of
the cities of refuge. It was the home of Barak, and here his host assembled. When
the Assyrians invaded the land under Tiglath-pileser, it was among the first cities
to be captured, and its inhabitants were deported (2 Kings 15:29). Near Kedesh
was fought the great battle between Jonathan the Maccabee and Demetrius (1 Macc
11:63). Josephus says that in his time it belonged to the Tyrians, lying between
their land and that of Galilee (Ant., XIII, v, 6; B J, II, xviii, 1; IV, ii, 3,
etc.). Eusebius, Onomasticon places it 20 miles from Tyre, near to Paneas. It
is represented by the modern village of Kedes, which lies on the plateau to the
West of el-Chuleh. It crowns a tell which runs out in a low ridge into the little
plain to the West. Near the fountain, which rises under the ridge to the North,
are the most interesting of the ancient remains. There are many fine sarcophagi,
some of them being used as watering-troughs. From its lofty situation, Kedesh
commanded a spacious view over a richly varied landscape, With smiling cornfields,
and hills clothed with oak and terebinth.
(4) (1 Macc 11:63,73, Codex Alexandrinus, Kedes; the King James Version Cades):
Scene of a battle between Judas Maccabeus and the forces of Demetrius.
See KEDESH-NAPHTALI, under KEDESH, 3.
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