|lin'-en ((pishet) flax, ('etun) yarn of Egypt)
RELATED: Tabernacle, Yarn
Easton's Bible Dictionary
(1) Hebrew., pishet, pishtah, denotes "flax," of which
linen is made ( Isaiah 19:9 ); wrought flax, i.e., "linen cloth", Leviticus 13:47
, 13:48 , 13:52 , 13:59 ; Deuteronomy 22:11 .
Flax was early cultivated in Egypt ( Exodus 9:31 ), and also in Palestine ( Joshua
2:6 ; Hosea 2:9 ). Various articles were made of it: garments ( 2 Samuel 6:14
), girdles ( Jeremiah 13:1 ), ropes and thread ( Ezekiel 40:3 ), napkins ( Luke
24:12 ; John 20:7 ), turbans ( Ezekiel 44:18 ), and lamp-wicks ( Isaiah 42:3 ).
(2) Hebrew. buts, "whiteness;" rendered "fine linen" in 1 Chronicles 4:21 ; 15:27
; 2 Chronicles 2:14 ; 3:14 ; Esther 1:6 ; 8:15 , and "white linen" 2 Chronicles
5:12 . It is not certain whether this word means cotton or linen.
(3) Hebrew. bad; rendered "linen" Exodus 28:42 ; 39:28 ; Leviticus 6:10 ; 16:4
, 16:23 , 16:32 ; 1 Samuel 2:18 ; 2 Samuel 6:14 , etc. It is uniformly used of
the sacred vestments worn by the priests. The word is from a root signifying "separation."
(4) Hebrew. shesh; rendered "fine linen" Exodus 25:4 ; 26:1 , 26:31 , 26:36 ,
etc. In Proverbs 31:22 it is rendered in Authorized Version "silk," and in Revised
Version "fine linen." The word denotes Egyptian linen of peculiar whiteness and
fineness (byssus). The finest Indian linen, the finest now made, has in an inch
one hundred threads of warp and eighty-four of woof; while the Egyptian had sometimes
one hundred and forty in the warp and sixty-four in the woof. This was the usual
dress of the Egyptian priest. Pharaoh arrayed Joseph in a dress of linen ( Genesis
(5) Hebrew. 'etun. Proverbs 7:16 , "fine linen of Egypt;" in Revised Version,
"the yarn of Egypt."
(6) Hebrew. sadin. Proverbs 31:24 , "fine linen;" in Revised Version, "linen garments"
( Judges 14:12 , 14:13 ; Isaiah 3:23 ). From this Hebrew word is probably derived
the Greek word sindon, rendered "linen" in Mark 14:51 , 14:52 ; 15:46 ; Matthew
The word "linen" is used as an emblem of moral purity ( Revelation 15:6 ). In
Luke 16:19 it is mentioned as a mark of luxury.
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
Smith's Bible Dictionary
Cloth made from flax. Several different Hebrew words
are rendered linen, which may denote different fabrics of linen or different modes
of manufacture. Egypt was the great centre of the linen trade. Some linen, made
form the Egyptian byssus , a flax that grew on the banks of the Nile, was exceedingly
soft and of dazzling whiteness. This linen has been sold for twice its weight
in gold. Sir J.G. Wilkinson says of it, "The quality of the fine linen fully justifies
all the praises of antiquity, and excites equal admiration at the present day,
being to the touch comparable to silk, and not inferior in texture to our finest
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
lin'-en (badh, "white linen," used chiefly for priestly
robes, buts, "byssus," a fine white Egyptian linen, called in the earlier writings
shesh; pesheth, "flax," cadhin; bussos, othonion, linon, sindon): Thread or cloth
made of flax.
Ancient Egypt was noted for its fine linen (Genesis 41:42 ; Isaiah 19:9). From
it a large export trade was carried on with surrounding nations, including the
Hebrews, who early learned the art of spinning from the Egyptians (Exodus 35:25)
and continued to rely on them for the finest linen (Proverbs 7:16 ; Ezekiel 27:7).
The culture of flax in Israel probably antedated the conquest, for in Joshua 2:6
we read of the stalks of flax which Rahab had laid in order upon the roof. Among
the Hebrews, as apparently among the Canaanites, the spinning and weaving of linen
were carried on by the women (Proverbs 31:13 , 19), among whom skill in this work
was considered highly praiseworthy (Exodus 35:25). One family, the house of Ashbea,
attained eminence as workers in linen (1 Chronicles 4:21 ; 2 Chronicles 2:14).
2. General Uses:
Linen was used, not only in the making of garments of the finer kinds and for
priests, but also for shrouds, hangings, and possibly for other purposes in which
the most highly prized cloth of antiquity would naturally be desired.
3. Priestly Garments:
The robes of the Hebrew priests consisted of 4 linen garments, in addition to
which the high priest wore garments of other stuffs (Exodus 28 ; 39 ; Leviticus
6:10 ; 16:4 ; 1 Samuel 22:18 ; Ezekiel 44:17 , 18). Egyptian priests are said
to have worn linen robes (Herod. ii.37). In religious services by others than
priests, white linen was also preferred, as in the case of the infant Samuel (1
Samuel 2:18), the Levite singers in the temple (2 Chronicles 5:12), and even royal
personages (2 Samuel 6:14 ; 1 Chronicles 15:27). Accordingly, it was ascribed
to angels (Ezekiel 9:2 , 3 , 11 ; 10:2 , 6 , 7 ; Daniel 10:5 ; 12:6 , 7). Fine
linen, white and pure, is the raiment assigned to the armies which are in heaven
following Him who is called Faithful and True (Revelation 19:14). It is deemed
a fitting symbol of the righteousness and purity of the saints (Revelation 19:8).
4. Other Garments:
Garments of distinction were generally made of the same material: e.g. those which
Pharaoh gave Joseph (Genesis 41:42), and those which Mordecai wore (Esther 8:15
; compare also Luke 16:19). Even a girdle of fine linen could be used by a prophet
as a means of attracting attention to his message (Jeremiah 13:1). It is probable
that linen wrappers of a coarser quality were used by men (Judges 14:12 , 13)
and women (Proverbs 31:22). The use of linen, however, for ordinary purposes probably
suggested unbecoming luxury (Isaiah 3:23 ; Ezekiel 16:10 , 13; compare also Revelation
18:12 , 16). The poorer classes probably wore wrappers made either of unbleached
flax or hemp (Ecclesiasticus 40:4 ; Mark 14:51). The use of a mixture called sha'aTnez,
which is defined (Deuteronomy 22:11) as linen and wool together, was forbidden
The Egyptians used linen exclusively in wrapping their mummies (Herod. ii.86).
As many as one hundred yards were used in one bandage. Likewise, the Hebrews seem
to have preferred this material for winding-sheets for the dead, at least in the
days of the New Testament (Matthew 27:59 ; Mark 15:46 ; Luke 23:53 ; John 19:40
; 20:5 ff) and the Talmud (Jerusalem Killayim 9:32b).
The use of twisted linen (shesh moshzar) for fine hangings dates back to an early
period. It was used in the tabernacle (Exodus 26:1 ; 27:9 ; 35 ; 36 ; 38 ; Josephus,
Ant, III, vi, 2), in the temple (2 Chronicles 3:14), and no doubt in other places
(Mishna, Yoma', iii.4). Linen cords for hangings are mentioned in the description
of the palace of Ahasuerus at Shushan (Esther 1:6).
7. Other Uses:
Other uses are suggested, such as for sails, in the imaginary ship to which Tyre
is compared (Ezekiel 27:7), but judging from the extravagance of the other materials
in the ship, it is doubtful whether we may infer that such valuable material as
linen was ever actually used for this purpose. It is more likely, however, that
it was used for coverings or tapestry (Proverbs 7:16), and possibly in other instances
where an even, durable material was needed, as in making measuring lines (Ezekiel
Ella Davis Isaacs
bad, bible commentary, bible history, bible reference, bible study, buts, byssus, define, 'etun, flax, linen, pishet, pishtah, sadin, shesh