Easton's Bible Dictionary
There are various Hebrew and Greek words so rendered.
(1) Hebrew. Jehovah, has been rendered in the English Bible LORD, printed in small
capitals. This is the proper name of the God of the Hebrews. The form "Jehovah"
is retained only in Exodus
6:3 ; Psalms
83:18 ; Isaiah
12:2 ; 26:4
, both in the Authorized and the Revised Version.
(2) Hebrew. 'adon, means one possessed of absolute control. It denotes a master,
as of slaves ( Genesis
24:14 , 24:27
), or a ruler of his subjects ( Genesis
45:8 ), or a husband, as lord of his wife ( Genesis
18:12 ). The old plural form of this Hebrew word is 'adonai . From a superstitious
reverence for the name "Jehovah," the Jews, in reading their Scriptures,
whenever that name occurred, always pronounced it 'Adonai. Greek kurios, a supreme
master, etc. In the LXX. this is invariably used for "Jehovah" and "'Adonai."
(3) Hebrew. ba'al, a master, as having domination. This word is applied to human
relations, as that of husband, to persons skilled in some art or profession, and
to heathen deities. "The men of Shechem," literally "the baals of Shechem" ( Judges
9:2 , 9:3
). These were the Israelite inhabitants who had reduced the Canaanites to a condition
of vassalage ( Joshua
16:10 ; 17:13
(4) Hebrew. seren, applied exclusively to the "lords of the Philistines" ( Judges
3:3 ). The LXX. render it by satrapies. At this period the Philistines were
not, as at a later period ( 1
Samuel 21:10 ), under a kingly government. (See Joshua
13:3 ; 1
Samuel 6:18 .) There were five such lordships, viz., Gath, Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon,
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
Smith's Bible Dictionary
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
lord, This English word in our Bible represents one Aramaic,
3 Greek and 9 Hebrew words, two of them in two forms. It thus expresses all grades
of dignity, honor, and majesty. It is not always possible to be sure of the sense
in which the term is to be taken. In Genesis 18:3; 19:18, the translators waver
between interpreting of the Divine Person and a finite angel (compare marginal
readings). It represents the most sacred Hebrew name for God, as their covenant
God, Yah, Yahweh, and the more usual designation of Deity, 'Adhonay, 'Adhon, a
term which they adopted to avoid pronouncing the most holy designation. They had
placed on Leviticus 24:16 an interpretation that aroused such a dread that they
seldom dared use the name at all. When two of the words usually translated "Lord,"
both referring to God, occur together, the King James Version renders "Lord God,"
and the American Standard Revised Version "Lord Yahweh." the American Standard
Revised Version has adopted the rule of using the covenant name transliterated,
instead of the term "Lord," in which the King James Version adopts the rule of
the Hebrews to avoid the holy name.
The Aramaic designation, Mare', occurs only in Daniel (e.g. Daniel 2:47 ; 5:23),
and the same word refers to a man (Daniel 4:24).
Of the Greek words, Kurios is freely used of both the Deity and men. Despotes,
of men in classic usage, occurs only of God, including the ascended Jesus, and
is employed only 5 times. Megistanes (plural) is found once, of men (Mark 6:21).
Rabboni (Hebrew in Greek letters) is applied only to the Christ, and is simply
transliterated in the Revised Version (British and American), but rendered "Lord"
in the King James Version (compare Mark 10:51).
Our English versions distinguish the 3 main uses of the term thus:
|(1) "LORD" represents the Hebrew Yahweh, Septuagint Kurios,
except where 'Adhonay or 'Adhon is combined with Yahweh (= "Lord God"); the American
Standard Revised Version has in these examples employed the name as it is found
in the Hebrew, simply transliterated.
(2) "Lord" corresponds to 'Adhonay, 'Adhon, Mare', also Greek Kurios (see (1)),
and Despotes, for which the American Standard Revised Version has always "Master"
in either the text or the margin.
(3) "Lord" ("lord") translates all the remaining 8 Hebrew words and the Greek
words except Despotes. It is thus seen that Kurios corresponds to all three forms
of writing the English term.
William Owen Carver
'Adon, Adonai, 'Adhonay, 'Adhonay, ba'al, bible commentary, bible history, bible reference, bible study, define, God, Jehovah, Kurios, LORD, Mare', seren, yah, yahweh