Easton's Bible Dictionary
An Assyrian king ( Hosea 10:14 ), identified with Shalmaneser
II. (Sayce) or IV. (Lenormant), the successor of Pul on the throne of Assyria
(B.C. 728). He made war against Hoshea, the king of Israel, whom he subdued and
compelled to pay an annual tribute. Hoshea, however, soon after rebelled against
his Assyrian conquerer. Shalmaneser again marched against Samaria, which, after
a siege of three years, was taken ( 2 Kings 17:3-5 ; 18:9 ) by Sargon (q.v.).
A revolution meantime had broken out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed.
Sargon usurped the vacant throne. Schrader thinks that this is probably the name
of a king of Moab mentioned on an inscription of Tiglath-pileser as Salamanu.
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
peaceable; perfect; that rewards
Smith's Bible Dictionary
(fire-worshipper) A contraction for Shalmaneser king
of Assyria. ( Hosea 10:14 ) Others think it the name of an obscure Assyrian king,
predecessor of Pul.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
A name of uncertain meaning, found only once in the Old Testament (Hosea 10:14),
in connection with a place-name, equally obscure, "as Shalman destroyed Betharbel."
Shalman is most commonly interpreted as a contracted form of Shalmaneser, the
name of several Assyrian kings. If this explanation is correct, the king referred
to cannot be identified. Some have thought of Shalmaneser IV, who is said to have
undertaken expeditions against the West in 775 and in 773-772. Others have proposed
Shalmaneser V, who attacked Samaria in 725. This, however, is improbable, because
the activity of Hosea ceased before Shalmaneser V became king. Shalman has also
been identified with Salamanu, a king of Moab in the days of Hosea, who paid tribute
to Tiglath-pileser V of Assyria; and with Shalmah, a North Arabian tribe that
invaded the Negeb. The identification of BETH-ARBEL (which see) is equally uncertain.
From the reference it would seem that the event in question was well known and,
therefore, probably one of recent date and considerable importance, but our present
historical knowledge does not enable us to connect any of the persons named with
the destruction of any of the localities suggested for Beth-arbel. The ancient
translations offer no solution; they too seem to have been in the dark.
F. C. Eiselen
assyrian king, bible commentary, bible reference, bible study, define, history, lenormant, salamanu, sayce, shalmah, shalman, shalmaneser, war with israel (hoshea)