Easton's Bible Dictionary
the abbreviated form of Simeon.
(1) One of the twelve apostles, called the Canaanite ( Matthew
10:4 ; Mark
3:18 ). This word "Canaanite" does not mean a native of Canaan, but is derived
from the Syriac word Kanean or Kaneniah, which was the name of a Jewish sect.
The Revised Version has "Cananaean;" marg., "or Zealot" He is also called "Zelotes"
6:15 ; Acts
1:13 ; RSV, "the Zealot"), because previous to his call to the apostleship
he had been a member of the fanatical sect of the Zealots. There is no record
(2) The father of Judas Iscariot ( John
6:71 ; 13:2
(3) One of the brothers of our Lord ( Matthew
13:55 ; Mark
(4) A Pharisee in whose house "a woman of the city which was a sinner" anointed
our Lord's feet with ointment ( Luke
7:36 - 38
(5) A leper of Bethany, in whose house Mary anointed our Lord's head with ointment
"as he sat at meat" ( Matthew
26:6 - 13
14:3 - 9
(6) A Jew of Cyrene, in North Africa, then a province of Libya. A hundred thousand
Jews from Palestine had been settled in this province by Ptolemy Soter (B.C. 323-285),
where by this time they had greatly increased in number. They had a synagogue
in Jerusalem for such of their number as went thither to the annual feasts. Simon
was seized by the soldiers as the procession wended its way to the place of crucifixion
as he was passing by, and the heavy cross which Christ from failing strength could
no longer bear was laid on his shoulders. Perhaps they seized him because he showed
sympathy with Jesus. He was the "father of Alexander and Rufus" ( Matthew
27:32 ). Possibly this Simon may have been one of the "men of Cyrene" who
preached the word to the Greeks ( Acts
(7) A sorcerer of great repute for his magical arts among the Samaritans ( Acts
8:9 - 11
). He afterwards became a professed convert to the faith under the preaching of
Philip the deacon and evangelist ( Acts
8:12 , 13).
His profession was, however, soon found to be hollow. His conduct called forth
from Peter a stern rebuke ( Acts
8:18 - 23
). From this moment he disappears from the Church's history. The term "Simony,"
as denoting the purchase for money of spiritual offices, is derived from him.
(8) A Christian at Joppa, a tanner by trade, with whom Peter on one occasion lodged
(9) Simon Peter ( Matthew
4:18 ). See PETER
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
that hears; that obeys
Smith's Bible Dictionary
(contracted form of Simeon, a hearing)
(1) Son of Mattathias. [MACCABEES]
(2) Son of Onias the high priest, whose eulogy closes the "praise of famous men"
in the book of Ecclesiasticus, ch. 4. (B.C. 302-293.)
(3) A "governor of the temple" in the time of Seleucus Philopator, whose information
as to the treasures of the temple led to the sacrilegious attach of Heliordorus.
2 Macc. 3:4, etc. (B.C. 175.) Simon the brother of Jesus. The only undoubted notice
of this Simon occurs in ( Matthew 13:55 ; Mark 6:3 ) He has been identified by
some writers with Simon the Canaanite, and still more generally with Symeon who
became bishop of Jerusalem after the death of James, A.D. 62. The former of these
opinions rests on no evidence whatever, nor is the later without its difficulties.
(4) Simon the Canaanite, one of the twelve apostles, ( Matthew 10:4 ; Mark 3:18
) otherwise described as Simon Zelotes, ( Luke 6:15 ; Acts 1:13 ) (A.D. 28.) The
latter term, which is peculiar to Luke, is the Greek equivalent for the Chaldee
term preserved by Matthew and Mark. [CANAANITE] Each of these equally points out
Simon as belonging to the faction of the Zealots, who were conspicuous for their
fierce advocacy of the Mosaic ritual.
(5) Simon of Cyrene, a Hellenistic Jew, born at Cyrene, on the north coast of
Africa, who was present at Jerusalem at the time of the crucifixion of Jesus,
either as an attendant at the feast, ( Acts 2:10 ) or as one of the numerous settlers
at Jerusalem from that place. ( Acts 6:9 ) (A.D. 30.) Meeting the procession that
conducted Jesus to Golgotha, as he was returning from the country, he was pressed
into the service to bear the cross, ( Matthew 27:32 ; Mark 15:21 ; Luke 23:26
) when Jesus himself was unable to carry it any longer. Comp. ( John 19:17 ) Mark
describes him as the father of Alexander and Rufus, perhaps because this was the
Rufus known to the Roman Christians, ( Romans 16:13 ) for whom he more especially
(5) Simon, a resident at Bethany, distinguished as "the leper." It is not improbable
that he had been miraculously cured by Jesus. In his house Mary anointed Jesus
preparatory to his death and burial. ( Matthew 26:6 ) etc.; Mark 14:3 etc.; John
(6) Simon Magus, a Samaritan living in the apostolic age, distinguished as a sorcerer
or "magician," from his practice of magical arts. ( Acts 8:9 ) According to ecclesiastical
writers he was born at Gitton, a village of Samaria, and was probably educated
at Alexandria in the tenets of the Gnostic school. He is first introduced to us
as practicing magical arts in a city of Samaria, perhaps Sychar, ( Acts 8:5 )
comp. John 4:5 and with such success that he was pronounced to be "the power of
God which is called great." ( Acts 8:10 ) The preaching and miracles of Philip
having excited his observation, he became one of his disciples, and received baptism
at his hands, A.D. 36,37. Subsequently he witnessed the effect produced by the
imposition of hands, as practiced by the apostles Peter and John, and, being desirous
of acquiring a similar power for himself, he offered a sum of money for it. His
object evidently was to apply the power to the prosecution of magical arts. The
motive and the means were equally to be reprobated; and his proposition met with
a severe denunciation from Peter, followed by a petition on the part of Simon,
the tenor of which bespeaks terror, but not penitence. ( Acts 8:9 - 24 ) The memory
of his peculiar guilt has been perpetuated in the word simony , as applied to
all traffic in spiritual offices. Simons history, subsequent to his meeting with
Peter, is involved in difficulties. Early Church historians depict him as the
pertinacious foe of the apostle Peter, whose movements he followed for the purpose
of seeking encounters, in which he was signally defeated. He is said to have followed
the apostle to Rome. His death is associated with this meeting. According to Hippolytus,
the earliest authority on the subject, Simon was buried alive at his own request,
in the confident assurance that he would rise on the third day.
(7) Simon Peter. [PETER]
(8) Simon, a Pharisee, in whose house a penitent woman anointed the head and feet
of Jesus. ( Luke 7:40 )
(9) Simon the tanner, a Christian convert living at Joppa, at whose house Peter
lodged. ( Acts 9:43 ) The house was near the seaside, ( Acts 10:6 , 10:32 ) for
the convenience of the water. (A.D. 37.)
(10) Simon the father of Judas Iscariot. ( John 6:71 ; 13:2 , 13:26 )
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
(1) Simon Peter. See PETER (SIMON).
(2) Another of the Twelve, Simon "the Cananean" (Matthew 10:4 ; Mark 3:18), "the
Zealot" (Luke 6:15 ; Acts 1:13). See CANANAEAN.
(3) One of the brethren of Jesus (Matthew 13:55 ; Mark 6:3). See BRETHREN OF THE
(4) "The leper" in Bethany, in whose house a woman poured a cruse of precious
ointment over the head of Jesus (Matthew 26:6; Mark 14:3). He had perhaps been
healed by Jesus; in that case his ungracious behavior was not consistent with
due gratitude. However he was healed, the title referred to his condition in the
past, as lepers were ostracized by law.
(5) A Pharisee in whose house a woman, "a sinner," wet the feet of Jesus with
her tears, and anointed them with ointment (Luke 7:36). By some he is identified
with (4), this being regarded as Luke's version of the incident recorded in Matthew
26 and Mark 14. Others as strongly deny this view. For discussion see MARY, IV.
(6) A man of Cyrene, who was compelled to carry the cross of Jesus (Matthew 27:32
; Mark 15:21 ; Luke 23:26). Mark calls him "the father of Alexander and Rufus,"
well-known members of the church at (probably) Rome (compare Acts 19:33 ; Romans
16:13). See CYRENIAN.
(7) The father of Judas Iscariot (John 6:71 ; 12:4 the King James Version, the
Revised Version (British and American) omits; John 13:2 , 26).
(8) Simon Magus (Acts 8:9). See separate article.
(9) Simon, the tanner, with whom Peter lodged at Joppa. His house was by the seaside
outside the city wall, because of its ceremonial uncleanness to a Jew, and also
for reasons of sanitation (Acts 9:43).
S. F. Hunter
Simon, Greek form of SIMEON (which see)): The persons of the name of Simon mentioned
in the Apocrypha are:
|(1) Simon the Maccabean (Hasmonean), surnamed THASSI (which
the 2nd son of Mattathias and elder brother of Judas Maccabeus. On his deathbed,
Mattathias commended Simon as a "man of counsel" to be a "father" to his brethren
(1 Macc 2:65), and a "man of counsel" he proved himself. But it was not till after
the death of Judas and the capture of Jonathan that he played the chief role.
Dispatched by Judas with a force to the relief of the Jews in Galilee he fought
with great success (1 Macc 5:17; Josephus, Ant, XII, viii, 1 f). We find him next
taking revenge along with Jonathan on the "children of Jambri" (1 Macc 9:33),
and cooperating in the successful campaign around Bethbasi against Bacchides (circa
156 BC) (1 Macc 9:62), and in the campaign against Apollonius (1 Macc 10:74).
In the conflict between Tryphon and Demetrius II, Simon was appointed by Antiochus
VI "captain from the Ladder of Tyre unto the borders of Egypt" (1 Macc 11:59).
After the capture of Jonathan at Ptolemais by Tryphon, Simon became acknowledged
leader of his party. He thwarted Tryphon in his attempts upon Jerusalem, in revenge
for which the latter murdered Jonathan (1 Macc 13:23). Simon then took the side
of Demetrius on condition of immunity for Judea, and so 'in the 170th year' (143-142
BC) 'the yoke of the heathen was taken away from Israel' (1 Macc 13:41). Simon
applied himself to rebuild the strongholds of Judea, reduced Gazara, captured
the Acra (citadel) and made Joppa a seaport. He showed his wisdom most of all
in his internal administration: "He sought the good of his country"; commerce
and agriculture revived; lawlessness was suppressed and "the land had rest all
the days of Simon (1 Macc 14:4). His power was acknowledged by Sparta and Rome
(1 Macc 14:16). In 141 BC he was appointed by the nation leader, high priest and
captain "for ever, until there should arise a faithful prophet" (1 Macc 14:41),
and thus the Hasmonean dynasty was founded. A new chronological era began with
the first year of his administration, and he minted his own coins. A few years
later Simon again meddled in Syrian politics (139 BC), this time at the entreaty
of Antiochus VII (Sidetes) in his contest against Tryphon; when, however, Antiochus
was assured of success, he refused the help of Simon and sent Cendebaeus against
Judea. Judas and John, sons of Simon, defeated the invaders near Modin (137-136
BC). In 135 BC Simon met his death by treachery. Ptolemy the son of Abubus, Simon's
own son-in-law, determined to secure supreme power for himself and, in order to
accomplish this, to assassinate the whole family of Simon. He accordingly invited
Simon and his sons to a banquet in the stronghold of Dok near Jericho, where he
treacherously murdered Simon with his two sons Mattathias and Judas. The other
son, John Hyrcanus, governor of Gazara, received intimation of the plot and saved
himself to become the head of the Hasmonean dynasty. "The significance of Simon's
administration consists in this, that he completed the work of Jonathan and left
the Jewish people absolutely independent of Syria" (Schurer).
See MACCABAEUS, II, 4.
(2) Simon I, the high priest, son of Onias I,
whom he succeeded circa 300 BC. He was one of the last of the Great Synagogue,
and to him is attributed the saying, "On three things the world depends--the Law,
Worship and the showing of kindness." According to Josephus (Ant., XII, ii, 5)
this Simon was called "the Just" (ho dikaios), "on account of his piety and his
benevolent disposition toward his countrymen."
Many authorities (Herzfeld, Derenbourg, Stanley, Cheyne) assert that Josephus
is wrong in attaching this epithet to Simon I instead of Simon II, and Schurer
is not certain on this question. But the Talmud passage which Derenbourg cites
means the opposite of what he takes it, namely, it is intended to show how splendid
and holy were the days of Simeon (ha-tsaddiq) compared with the later days. Besides,
Josephus is more likely to have known the truth on this matter than these later
authorities. The same uncertainty obtains as to whether the eulogium in Sirach
50:1 of "the great priest" refers to Simon I or Simon II. Schurer and
others refer it to Simon II. It is more likely to refer to the Simon who was famous
as "the Just," and consequently to Simon I. Besides we know of no achievements
of Simon II to entitle him to such praise. The building operations mentioned would
suit the time of Simon I better, as Ptolemy captured Jerusalem and probably caused
considerable destruction. The Talmud states that this Simon (and not Jaddua) met
Alexander the Great.
(3) Simon II, high priest, son of Onias II and grandson of Simon I and father
of Onias III,
flourished about the end of the 3rd century BC, and was succeeded by his son Onias
III circa 198 BC. Josephus says that this Simon in the conflict of the sons of
Joseph sided with the elder sons against Hyrcanus the younger. Schurer (probably
incorrectly) thinks he is the Simon praised in Sirach 50:1. See (2) above (3 Macc
2:1; Josephus, Ant, XII, iv, 10).
(4) Simon, a Benjamite, guardian of the temple,
who, having quarreled with the high priest Onias III, informed Apollonius of the
untold sums of money in the temple treasury. Apollonius laid the matter before
the king Seleucus IV, who sent Heliodorus to remove the money. An apparition prevented
Heliodorus from accomplishing his task (2 Macc 3:4). It is further recorded, that
Simon continued his opposition to Onias. He is spoken of as brother of the renegade
Menelaus (2 Macc 4:23). Of his end we know nothing.
(5) Simon Chosameus (Codex Vaticanus (and Swete) Chosamaos; Codex Alexandrinus
one of the sons of Annas who had married "strange wives" (1 Esdras 9:32).
Simon apparently = "Shimeon" (shim'on) of the sons of Harim (Ezra 10:31);
Chosameus is probably a corruption standing in the place of, but not resembling,
any of the three names:
Benjamin, Malluch, Shemaraiah, which Esdras omits from the Ezra list.
apostle, bear the cross, bible commentary, bible reference, bible study, brother of jesus, carried the cross when jesus was unable (simon of cyrene), father of judas iscariot, history, leper, peter, pharisee, simeon, simon, sorcerer, the canaanite