Easton's Bible Dictionary
breast, The name of one of the apostles ( Mark
3:18 ), called "Lebbaeus" in Matthew
10:3 , and in Luke
6:16 , "Judas the brother of James;" while ( John
14:22 ), probably referring to the same person, speaks of "Judas, not Iscariot."
These different names all designate the same person, viz., Jude or Judas, the
author of the epistle.
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
that praises or confesses
Smith's Bible Dictionary
One of the twelve apostles. ( Matthew
10:3 ; Mark
3:18 ) From a comparison with the catalogue of St. Luke, ( Luke
6:16 ; Acts
1:13 ) it seems scarcely possible to doubt that the three names, of Judas,
Lebbeus and Thaddeus were borne by one and the same person. [See JUDE]
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
One of the Twelve Apostles (Matthew 10:3 ; Mark 3:18). In Matthew 10:3 the King
James Version, the reading is "Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus." The name
corresponds to Judas, the son (Revised Version), or brother (the King James Version),
of James, given in the lists of Luke 6:16 ; Acts 1:13.
See JUDAS, NOT ISCARIOT; LEBBAEUS.
The "Gospel of the Ebionites," or "Gospel of the Twelve Apostles," of the 2nd
century and mentioned by Origen, narrates that Thaddaeus was also among those
who received their call to follow Jesus at the Sea of Tiberias (compare Matthew
4:18 - 22).
See also SIMON THE CANANAEAN.
According to the "Genealogies of the Twelve Apostles" (compare Budge, Contendings
of the Apostles, II, 50), Thaddaeus was of the house of Joseph; according to the
"Book of the Bee" he was of the tribe of Judah. There is abundant testimony in
apocryphal literature of the missionary activity of a certain Thaddaeus in Syria,
but doubt exists as to whether this was the apostle. Thus
|(1) according to the "Acts of Peter" (compare Budge, II,
466) Peter appointed Thaddaeus over the island of Syria and Edessa.
(2) The "Preaching of the blessed Judas, the brother of our Lord, who was surnamed
Thaddaeus" (Budge, 357), describes his mission in Syria and in Dacia, and indicates
him as one of the Twelve.
(3) The "Acta Thaddaei" (compare Tischendorf, Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, 1851,
261) refers to this Thaddaeus in the text as one of the Twelve, but in the heading
as one of the Seventy.
(4) The Abgar legend, dealing with a supposed correspondence between Abgar, king
of Syria, and Christ, states in its Syriac form, as translated by Eusebius (Historia
Ecclesiastica, I, xiii, 6-22) (compare THOMAS), that "after the ascension of Christ,
Judas, who was also called Thomas, sent to Abgar the apostle Thaddaeus, one of
the Seventy" (compare Hennecke, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen, 76).
Jerome, however, identifies this same Thaddaeus with
Lebbaeus and "Judas .... of James" of Luke (Luke 6:16). Hennecks (op. cit., 473,
474) surmises that in the original form of the Abgar legend Thomas was the central
figure, but that through the influence of the later "Ac of Thomas", which required
room to be made for Thomas' activity in India, a later Syriac recension was made,
in which Thomas became merely the sender of Thaddaeus to Edessa, and that this
was the form which Eusebius made use of in his translation According to Phillips
(compare Phillips, The Doctrine of Addai the Apostle), who quotes Zahn in support,
the confusion may be due to the substitution of the Greek name Thaddaeus for the
name Addai of the Syriac manuscripts.
See APOCRYPHAL ACTS.
The general consensus seems to indicate, however, that both Thomas and Thaddaeus
the apostle had some connection with Edessa. Of the various identifications of
Thaddaeus with other Biblical personages which might be inferred from the foregoing,
that with "Judas .... of James" is the only one that has received wide acceptance.
The burial place of Thaddaeus is variously placed at Beirut and in Egypt. A "Gospel
of Thaddaeus" is mentioned in the Decree of Gelasius.
C. M. Kerr
apostle, bible commentary, bible reference, bible study, define, history of, judas, lebbaeus, lebbeus, thaddaeus