Easton's Bible Dictionary
were of a great variety of forms, and were made of divers
materials. Some were made of silver ( Numbers
10:2 ), and were used only by the priests in announcing the approach of festivals
and in giving signals of war. Some were also made of rams' horns ( Joshua 6:8
). They were blown at special festivals, and to herald the arrival of special
seasons ( Leviticus
23:24 ; 25:9 ; 1
Chronicles 15:24 ; 2
Chronicles 29:27 ; Psalms
81:3 ; 98:6
"Trumpets" are among the symbols used in the Book of Revelation ( Revelation
1:10 ; 8:2
). (See HORN .)
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
Smith's Bible Dictionary
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
(FROM TRUMP, TRUMPET)
trump, trum'-pet, trum'pit.
See From MUSIC.
(7) The Shophar Qeren.
The shophar was a trumpet, curved at the end like a horn (qeren), and no doubt
originally was a horn. The two words shophar and qeren are used synonymously in
Joshua 6:4,5, where we read shophar ha-yobhelim and qeren ha-yobhel. With regard
to the meaning of hayobhel, there is some difference of opinion. The Revised Version
(British and American) renders in text "ram's horn," in the margin "jubilee."
The former depends on a statement in the Talmud that yobhel is Arabic for "ram's
horn," but no trace of such a word has been found in Arabic. A suggestion of Pfeiffer's
that yobhel does not designate the instrument, but the manner of blowing, is advocated
by J. Weiss. It gives a good sense in the passages in which yobhel occurs in connection
with shophar or qeren. Thus in Joshua 6:5, we would translate, "when the priests
blow triumph on the horn."
The shophar was used in early times chiefly, perhaps exclusively, for warlike
purposes. It gave the signal "to arms" (Judges 6:34 ; 1 Samuel 13:3 ; 2 Samuel
20:1); warned of the approach of the enemy (Amos 3:6 ; Ezekiel 33:6 ; Jeremiah
4:5 ; 6:1); was heard throughout a battle (Amos 2:2 , etc.); and sounded the recall
(2 Samuel 2:28). Afterward it played an important part in connection with religion.
It was blown at the proclamation of the Law (Exodus 19:13 , etc.); and at the
opening of the Year of Jubilee (Leviticus 25:9); heralded the approach of the
Ark (2 Samuel 6:15); hailed a new king (2 Samuel 15:10); and is prophetically
associated with the Divine judgment and restoration of the chosen people from
captivity (Isaiah 18:3 , and often).
(8) The Chatsotseroth.
We are told (Numbers 10:2) that Moses was commanded to make two silver trumpets
which should serve to summon the people to the door of the tabernacle; give the
signal for breaking up the camp; or call to arms. These instruments were the hatsotseroth,
which differed from the shophar in that they were straight, not curved, were always
made of metal, and were only blown by the priests. They are shown on the Arch
of Titus and on Jewish coins, and are described by Josephus (Ant., III, xii, 6).
The latter says: "In length it was not quite a yard. It was composed of a narrow
tube somewhat thicker than a flute, widened slightly at the mouth to catch the
breath, and ended in the form of a bell, like the common trumpets."
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