Easton's Bible Dictionary
(1) Hebrew. mitpahath ( Ruth
3:15 ; marg., "sheet" or "apron;" RSV, "mantle"). In Isaiah
3:22 this word is plural, rendered "wimples;" RSV, "shawls" i.e., wraps.
(2) Massekah ( Isaiah
25:7 ; in Isaiah
28:20 rendered "covering"). The word denotes something spread out and covering
or concealing something else (Compare 2
Corinthians 3:13 - 15
(3) Masveh ( Exodus
34:33 , Exodus
34:35 ), the veil on the face of Moses. This verse should be read, "And when
Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face," as in the Revised
Version. When Moses spoke to them he was without the veil; only when he ceased
speaking he put on the veil (Compare 2
Corinthians 3:13 , etc.).
(4) Paroheth ( Exodus
26:31 - 35
), the veil of the tabernacle and the temple, which hung between the holy place
and the most holy ( 2
Chronicles 3:14 ). In the temple a partition wall separated these two places.
In it were two folding-doors, which are supposed to have been always open, the
entrance being concealed by the veil which the high priest lifted when he entered
into the sanctuary on the day of Atonement. This veil was rent when Christ died
on the cross ( Matthew
27:51 ; Mark
15:38 ; Luke
(5) Tza'iph ( Genesis
24:65 ). Rebekah "took a vail and covered herself." (See also Genesis
38:19 ) Hebrew women generally appeared in public without veils ( Genesis
12:14 ; 24:16
Samuel 1:12 ).
(6) Radhidh (Cant
5:7 , RSV "mantle;" Isaiah
3:23 ). The word probably denotes some kind of cloak or wrapper.
(7) Masak, the veil which hung before the entrance to the holy place ( Exodus
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
Smith's Bible Dictionary
With regard to the use of the veil, it is important to
observe that it was by no means so general in ancient as in modern times. Much
of the scrupulousness in respect of the use of the veil dates from the promulgation
of the Koran, which forbade women appearing unveiled except in the presence of
their nearest relatives. In ancient times the veil was adopted only in exceptional
cases, either as an article of ornamental dress, ( Song of Solomon 4:1 , Song
of Solomon 4:3 ; 6:7 ) or by betrothed maidens in the presence of their future
husbands, especially at the time of the wedding, ( Genesis 24:65 ) or lastly,
by women of loose character for purposes of concealment. ( Genesis 38:14 ) Among
the Jews of the New Testament age it appears to have been customary for the women
to cover their heads (not necessarily their faces) when engaged in public worship.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
The following words are so translated in English Versions of the Bible (sometimes
the King James Version vail):
Ruth 3:15 the King James Version, the Revised Version (British and American) "mantle."
As the material was strong enough to serve as a bag for a large quantity of grain
the Revised Version (British and American) is certainly right; compare Isaiah
Exodus 34:33 - 35. Paul in his quotation of the passage in 2 Corinthians 3:13
- 16 uses kalumma, following Septuagint. The covering worn by Moses to conceal
the miraculous brightness of his face, although, according to Massoretic Text,
he seems to have worn it only in private.
Isaiah 25:7; in 28:20 translated "covering." The use in 25:7 is figurative and
the form of the "veil" a matter of indifference.
the Revised Version (British and American) Song of Solomon 4:1 , 3 (margin "locks"
(of hair)); 6:7; Isaiah 47:2, the King James Version "locks." The meaning of the
word is uncertain and the King James Version may very well be right. If, however,
the Revised Version's translation is correct, a light ornamental veil is meant.
Genesis 24:65 ; 38:14 , 19. A large wrap is meant, which at times was used to
cover the face also. In 24:65 Rebekah conformed to the etiquette which required
the veiling of brides (see MARRIAGE). In Genesis 38 one motive for Tamar's use
of the veil was certainly to avoid recognition, but it seems clear from the passage
that veils were used by courtesans. Why is unknown, perhaps partly to conceal
their identity, perhaps partly in parody of the marriage custom.
Song of Solomon 5:7 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mantle," margin
"veil"); Isaiah 3:23. A light mantle is certainly meant. In Song of Solomon 5:7
it is torn from the maiden in the watchmen's endeavor to detain her.
The Wisdom of Solomon 17:3 the King James Version, the Revised Version (British
and American) "curtain."
(8) Verb katakalupto,
1 Corinthians 11:6, with akatakalupto, "unveil" in 11:5; the King James Version
has "cover" and "uncover"; kalupto, 2 Corinthians 4:3 (twice), anakalupto, 2 Corinthians
3:18; the King James Version "hid" and "open."
It will be seen that there is a certain reference to what in modern times would
be termed a "veil" only in (2) above. For a possible additional reference see
The use of the face veil as a regular article of dress was unknown to the Hebrew
women, and if "veil" is to be understood in Song of Solomon 4:1, etc., it was
worn as an ornament only. The modern oriental custom of veiling is due to Mohammedan
influence and has not been universally adopted by Jewesses in the Orient. In New
Testament times, however, among both Greeks and Romans, reputable women wore a
veil in public (Plutarch Quaest. Rom. xiv) and to appear without it was an act
of bravado (or worse); Tarsus, Paul's home city, was especially noted for strictness
in this regard (Dio of Prusa, Tarsica prior, section symbol 48). Hence, Paul's
indignant directions in 1 Corinthians 11:2-16, which have their basis in the social
proprieties of the time. The bearing of these directions, however, on the compulsory
use of the hat by modern women in public worship would appear to be very remote.
(9) For the Veil of the Tabernacle and the Temple.
(parokheth; katapetasma; the King James Version vail):
In Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, the veil that hung between the two holy chambers
of the tabernacle is mentioned 23 times (Exodus 26:31, etc.). In several places
it is termed "the veil of the screen" and it is distinguished from "the screen
for the door of the tabernacle" (Exodus 35:12 , 15 ; 39:34 , 38). By the latter
is meant the curtain that hung outside the holy place, i.e. at the tabernacle
entrance. Exodus 26:31 informs us that the veil was made of fine-twined linen,
and that its colors were blue and purple and scarlet. It was embroidered with
cherubim. At each removal of the tabernacle the veil was used to enwrap the ark
of the testimony (Numbers 4:5). From its proximity to this central object of the
Hebrew ceremonial system, the veil is termed "the veil of the testimony" (Leviticus
24:3), "the veil which is before the testimony" (Exodus 27:21), etc. In Solomon's
Temple the veil is mentioned but once (2 Chronicles 3:14). It was protected by
doors of olive wood (1 Kings 6:31). In the later temple it is alluded to in 1
Macc 1:22. Its presence in Herod's temple is attested by the statement in each
of the Synoptists that at the time of Christ's death the veil of the temple was
rent from top to bottom, or in the midst (Matthew 27:51 ; Mark 15:38 ; Luke 23:45
; compare in Mishna, Mid. ii. 1; iv.7). This fact is the basis of the profound
truth expressed by the writer to the Hebrews that Jesus, by His sacrificial death,
opened for all believers a way into the holiest "through the veil, that is to
say, his flesh" (Hebrews 10:20). See TABERNACLE; TEMPLE.
Burton Scott Easton,
W. Shaw Caldecott,
bible commentary, bible history, bible reference, bible study, define, list of hebrew words for veil, masak, massekah, masveh, mitpahath, paroheth, radhidh, tza'iph, veil