Easton's Bible Dictionary
Jehovah has concealed, or Jehovah of darkness.
(1) The son of Cushi, and great-grandson of Hezekiah, and the ninth in the order
of the minor prophets. He prophesied in the days of Josiah, king of Judah (B.C.
641-610), and was contemporary with Jeremiah, with whom he had much in common.
The book of his prophecies consists of:
|(a) An introduction ( Zephaniah
), announcing the judgment of the world, and the judgment upon Israel, because
of their transgressions.
(b) The description of the judgment ( Zephaniah
(c) An exhortation to seek God while there is still time ( Zephaniah
(d) The announcement of judgment on the heathen ( Zephaniah
(e) The hopeless misery of Jerusalem ( Zephaniah
(f) The promise of salvation ( Zephaniah
(2 - 4) SEE ZEPHANIAH
Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names
Smith's Bible Dictionary
(hidden by Jehovah)
(1) The ninth in order of the twelve minor prophets. His pedigree is traced to
his fourth ancestor, Hezekiah, ( Zephaniah
1:1 ) supposed to be the celebrated king of that name. The chief characteristics
of this book are the unity and harmony of the composition, the grace, energy and
dignity of its style, and the rapid and effective alternations of threats and
promises. The general tone of the last portion is Messianic, but without any specific
reference to the person of our Lord. The date of the book is given in the inscription--viz,
the reign of Josiah, from 642 to 611 B.C. It is most probable moreover, that the
prophecy was delivered before the eighteenth year of Josiah.
(2 - 3) SEE ZEPHANIAH
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
I. THE AUTHOR
The name "Zephaniah" (tsephanyah; Sophonias), which is borne by three other men
mentioned in the Old Testament, means "Yah hides," or "Yah has hidden" or "treasured."
"It suggests," says G. A. Smith, "the prophet's birth in the killing time of Manasseh"
(2 Kings 21:16).
The ancestry of the prophet is carried back four generations (Zephaniah 1:1),
which is unusual in the Old Testament (compare Isaiah 1:1; Hosea 1:1); hence,
it is thought, not without reason (Eiselen, Minor Prophets, 505), that the last-mentioned
ancestor, Hezekiah, must have been a prominent man--indeed, no other than King
Hezekiah of Judah, the contemporary of Isaiah and Micah. If Zephaniah was of royal
blood, his condemnation of the royal princes (1:8) becomes of great interest.
In a similar manner did Isaiah, who in all probability was of royal blood, condemn
without hesitation the shortcomings and vices of the rulers and the court. An
ancient tradition declares that Zephaniah was of the tribe of Simeon, which would
make it impossible for him to be of royal blood; but the origin and value of this
tradition are uncertain.
Zephaniah lived in Judah; that he lived in Jerusalem is made probable by the statement
in 1:4, "I will cut off .... from this place," as well as by his intimate knowledge
of the topography of the city (1:10,11).
For how long he continued his prophetic activity we do not know, but it is not
improbable that, as in the case of Amos, his public activity was short, and that,
after delivering his message of judgment in connection with a great political
crisis, he retired to private life, though his interest in reforms may have continued
(2 Kings 23:2).
The title (Zephaniah 1:1) places the prophetic activity of Zephaniah somewhere
within the reign of Josiah, that is, between 639 and 608 BC. Most scholars accept
this statement as historically correct. The most important exception is E. Koenig
(Einl, 252), who places it in the decade following the death of Josiah. Koenig's
arguments are altogether inconclusive, while all the internal evidence points
toward the reign of Josiah as the period of Zephaniah's activity. Can the ministry
of the prophet be more definitely located within the 31 years of Josiah? The latter's
reign falls naturally into two parts, separated by the great reform of 621. Does
the work of Zephaniah belong to the earlier or the later period?
The more important arguments in favor of the later period are:
|(a) Deuteronomy 28:29,30 is quoted in Zephaniah 1:13,15,17,
in a manner which shows that the former book was well known, but according to
the modern view, the Deuteronomic Code was not known until 621, because it was
lost (2 Kings 22:8).
(b) The "remnant of Baal" (Zephaniah 1:4) points to a period when much of the
Baal-worship had been removed, which means subsequent to 621.
(c) The condemnation of the "king's sons" (Zephaniah 1:8) presupposes that at
the time of the utterance they had reached the age of moral responsibility; this
again points to the later period.
These arguments are inconclusive:
|(a) The resemblances between Deuteronomy and Zephaniah are
of such a general character that dependence of either passage on the other is
(b) The expression in Zephaniah 1:4 bears an interpretation which made its use
quite appropriate before 621 (Eiselen, Minor Prophets, 508).
(c) "King's sons" may be equivalent to "royal princes," referring not to Josiah's
children at all. The last two objections lose all force if the Septuagint readings
are accepted (Zephaniah 1:4, "names of Baal"; 1:8, "house of the king").
On the other hand, there are several considerations pointing to the earlier date:
|(a) The youth of the king would make it easy for the royal
princes to go to the excesses condemned in Zephaniah 1:8,9.
(b) The idolatrous practices condemned by Zephaniah (1:3-5) are precisely those
abolished in 621.
(c) The temper described in Zephaniah 1:12 is explicable before 621 and after
the death of Josiah in 608, but not between 621 and 608, when religious enthusiasm
(d) Only the earlier part of Josiah's reign furnishes a suitable occasion for
Evidently at the time of its delivery an enemy was threatening the borders of
Judah and of the surrounding nations. But the only foes of Judah during the latter
part of the 7th century meeting all the conditions are the Scythians, who swept
over Western Asia about 625 BC. At the time the prophecy was delivered their advance
against Egypt seems to have been still in the future, but imminent (Zephaniah
1:14); hence, the prophet's activity may be placed between 630 and 625, perhaps
in 626. If this date is correct, Zephaniah and Jeremiah began their ministries
in the same year.
2. Political Situation:
Little can be said about the political conditions in Judah during the reign of
Josiah, because the Biblical books are silent concerning them. Josiah seems to
have remained loyal to his Assyrian lord to the very end, even when the latter's
prestige had begun to wane, and this loyalty cost him his life (2 Kings 23:29).
As already suggested, the advance of the Scythians furnished the occasion of the
prophecy. Many questions concerning these Scythians remain still unanswered, but
this much is clear, that they were a non-Semitic race of barbarians, which swept
in great hordes over Western Asia during the 7th century BC (see SCYTHIANS). The
prophet looked upon the Scythians as the executioners of the divine judgment upon
his sinful countrymen and upon the surrounding nations; and he saw in the coming
of the mysterious host the harbinger of the day of Yahweh.
3. Moral and Religious Conditions:
The Book of Zephaniah, the early discourses of Jeremiah, and 2 Kings 21-23 furnish
a vivid picture of the social, moral, and religious conditions in Judah at the
time Zephaniah prophesied. Social injustice and moral corruption were widespread
(3:1,3,7). Luxury and extravagance might be seen on every hand; fortunes were
heaped up by oppressing the poor (1:8,9). The religious situation was equally
bad. The reaction under Manasseh came near making an end of Yahweh-worship (2
Kings 21). Amon followed in the footsteps of his father, and the outlook was exceedingly
dark when Josiah came to the throne. Fortunately the young king came under prophetic
influence from the beginning, and soon undertook a religious reform, which reached
its culmination in the 18th year of his reign. When Zephaniah preached, this reform
was still in the future. The Baalim were still worshipped, and the high places
were flourishing (1:4); the hosts of heaven were adored upon the housetops (1:5);
a half-hearted Yahweh-worship, which in reality was idolatry, was widespread (1:5);
great multitudes had turned entirely from following Yahweh (1:6). When the cruel
Manasseh was allowed to sit undisturbed upon the throne for more than 50 years,
many grew skeptical and questioned whether Yahweh was taking any interest in the
affairs of the nation; they began to say in their hearts, "Yahweh will not do
good, neither will he do evil" (1:12). Conditions could hardly be otherwise, when
the religious leaders had become misleaders (3:4). The few who, amid the general
corruption, remained faithful would be insufficient to avert the awful judgment
upon the nation, though they themselves might be "hid in the day of Yahweh's anger"
The Book of Zephaniah falls naturally into two parts of unequal length. The first
part (Zephaniah 1:2 - 3:8) contains, almost exclusively, denunciations and threats;
the second (Zephaniah 3:9 - 20), a promise of salvation and glorification. The
prophecy opens with the announcement of a world judgment (Zephaniah 1:2 , 3),
which will be particularly severe upon Judah and Jerusalem, because of idolatry
(Zephaniah1:4 - 6). The ungodly nobles will suffer most, because they are the
leaders in crime (Zephaniah 1:8 , 9). The judgment is imminent (Zephaniah 1:7);
when it arrives there will be wailing on every hand (Zephaniah 1:10 , 11). No
one will escape, even the indifferent skeptics will be aroused (Zephaniah 1:12
, 13). In the closing verses of chapter 1, the imminence and terribleness of the
day of Yahweh are emphasized, from which there can be no escape, because Yahweh
has determined to make a "terrible end of all them that dwell in the land" (Zephaniah1:14
- 18). A way of escape is offered to the meek; if they seek Yahweh, they may be
"hid in the day of Yahweh" (Zephaniah 2:1 - 3). Zephaniah 2:4 - 15 contains threats
upon 5 nations, Philistia (Zephaniah 2:4 - 7), Moab and Ammon (Zephaniah 2:8 -
11), Ethiopia (Zephaniah 2:12), Assyria (Zephaniah 2:13 - 15). In Zephaniah 3:1
the prophet turns once more to Jerusalem. Leaders, both civil and religious, and
people are hopelessly corrupt (Zephaniah3:1 - 4), and continue so in spite of
Yahweh's many attempts to win the city back to purity (Zephaniah 3:5 - 7); hence,
the judgment which will involve all nations has become inevitable (Zephaniah 3:8).
A remnant of the nations and of Judah will escape and find rest and peace in Yahweh
(Zephaniah 3:9 - 13). The closing section (Zephaniah 3:14 - 20) pictures the joy
and exaltation of the redeemed daughter of Zion.
The authenticity of every verse in Zephaniah 2 and 3, and of several verses in
chapter 1, has been questioned by one or more scholars, but the passages rejected
or questioned with greatest persistency are Zephaniah 2:1 - 3 , 4 - 15 (especially
Zephaniah 2:8 - 11) ; 3:9 , 10 , 14 - 20. The principal objection to Zephaniah
2:1 - 3 is the presence in Zephaniah 2:3 of the expressions "meek of the earth,"
and "seek meekness." It is claimed that "meek" and "meekness" as religious terms
are post-exilic. There can be no question that the words occur more frequently
in post-exilic psalms and proverbs than in preexilic writings, but it cannot be
proved, or even shown to be probable, that the words might not have been used
in Zephaniah's day (compare Exodus 10:3 ; Numbers 12:3 ; Isaiah 2:9 ; Micah 6:8).
A second objection is seen in the difference of tone between these verses and
Zephaniah 1. The latter, from beginning to end, speaks of the terrors of judgment;
Zephaniah 2:1 - 3 weakens this by offering a way of escape. But surely, judgment
cannot have been the last word of the prophets; in their thought, judgment always
serves a disciplinary purpose. They are accustomed to offer hope to a remnant.
Hence, Zephaniah 2:1 - 3 seems to form the necessary completion of chapter 1.
The objections against Zephaniah 2:4 - 15 as a whole are equally inconclusive.
For Zephaniah 2:13 - 15, a date preceding the fall of Nineveh seems most suitable.
The threat against Philistia (Zephaniah 2:4 - 7) also is quite intelligible in
the days of Zephaniah, for the Scythians passed right through the Philistine territory.
If Ethiopia stands for Egypt, Zephaniah 2:12 can easily be accounted for as coming
from Zephaniah, for the enemies who were going along the Mediterranean coast must
inevitably reach Egypt. But if it is insisted upon that the reference is to Ethiopia
proper, again no difficulty exists, for in speaking of a world judgment Zephaniah
might mention Ethiopia as the representative of the far south. Against Zephaniah
2:8 - 11 the following objections are raised:
|(a) Moab and Ammon were far removed from the route taken
by the Scythians.
(b) The "reproaches" of Zephaniah 2:8 , 10 presuppose the destruction of Jerusalem
(Ezekiel 25:3 , 6 , 8).
(c) The attitude of the prophet toward Judah (Zephaniah 2:9 , 10) is the exact
opposite of that expressed in Zephaniah 1.
(d) The qinah meter, which predominates in the rest of the section, is absent
from Zephaniah 2:8 - 11.
(e) Zephaniah 2:12 is the natural continuation of 2:9.
These five arguments are by no means conclusive:
|(a) The prophet is announcing a world judgment. Could this
be executed by the Scythians if they confined themselves to the territory along
the Mediterranean Sea?
(b) Is it true that the "reproaches" of Zephaniah 2:8 , 10 presuppose the destruction
(c) The promises in Zephaniah 2:7 , 8 - 10 are only to a remnant, which presupposes
a judgment such as is announced in chapter 1.
(d) Have we a right to demand consistency in the use of a certain meter in oratory,
and, if so, may not the apparent inconsistency be due to corruption of the text,
or to a later expansion of an authentic oracle?
(e) Zephaniah 2:8 - 11 can be said to interrupt the thought only if it is assumed
that the prophet meant to enumerate the nations in the order in which the Scythians
naturally would reach their territory.
From Philistia they would naturally pass to Egypt. But is this assumption warranted?
While the objections against the entire paragraph are inconclusive, it cannot
be denied that Zephaniah 2:12 seems the natural continuation of Zephaniah 2:9,
and since 2:10 and 11 differ in other respects from those preceding, suspicion
of the originality of these two verses cannot be suppressed.
Zephaniah 3:1 - 8 is so similar to chapter 1 that its originality cannot be seriously
questioned, but Zephaniah 3:1 - 8 carry with them Zephaniah 3:9 - 13, which describe
the purifying effects of the judgment announced in Zephaniah 3:1 - 8. The present
text of Zephaniah 3:10 may be corrupt, but if properly emended there remains insufficient
reason for questioning Zephaniah 3:10 and 11. The authenticity of Zephaniah 3:14
- 20 is more doubtful than that of any other section of Zephaniah. The buoyant
tone of the passage forms a marked contrast to the somber, quiet strain of Zephaniah
3:11 - 13; the judgments upon Judah appear to be in the past; Zephaniah 3:18 -
20 seem to presuppose a scattering of the people of Judah, while the purifying
judgment of Zephaniah 3:11 - 13 falls upon the people in their own land; hence,
there is much justice in Davidson's remark that "the historical situation presupposed
is that of Isaiah 40." On the other hand, it must be borne in mind that the passage
is highly poetic, that it presents an ideal picture of the future, in the drawing
of which imagination must have played some part, and it may be difficult to assert
that the composition of this poem was entirely beyond the power of Zephaniah's
enlightened imagination. But while the bare possibility of Zephaniah's authorship
may be admitted, it is not impossible that Zephaniah 3:14 - 20 contains a "new
song from God," added to the utterances of Zephaniah at a period subsequent to
the fall of Jerusalem.
The teaching of Zephaniah closely resembles that of the earlier prophetic books.
Yahweh is the God of the universe, a God of righteousness and holiness, who expects
of His worshippers a life in accord with His will. Israel are His chosen people,
but on account of rebellion they must suffer severe punishment. Wholesale conversion
seems out of the question, but a remnant may escape, to be exalted among the nations.
He adds little, but attempts with much moral and spiritual fervor to impress upon
his comtemporaries the fundamental truths of the religion of Yahweh. Only a few
points deserve special mention.
1. The Day of Yahweh:
Earlier prophets had spoken of the day of Yahweh; Amos (5:18 - 20) had described
it in language similar to that employed by Zephaniah; but the latter surpasses
all his predecessors in the emphasis he places upon this terrible manifestation
of Yahweh (see ESCHATOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT). His entire teaching centers
around this day; and in the Book of Zephaniah we find the germs of the apocalyptic
visions which become so common in later prophecies of an eschatological character.
Concerning this day he says
|(a) that it is a day of terror (Zephaniah 1:15),
(b) it is imminent (Zephaniah 1:14),
(c) it is a judgment for sin (Zephaniah 1:17),
(d) it falls upon all creation (Zephaniah 1:2 , 3 ; 2:4 - 15 ; 3:8),
(e) it is accompanied by great convulsions in Nature (Zephaniah 1:15),
(f) a remnant of redeemed Hebrews and foreigners will escape from its terrors
(Zephaniah 2:3 ; 3:9 - 13).
The vision of the book is world-wide. The terrors of the day of Yahweh will fall
upon all. In the same manner from all nations converts will be won to Yahweh (Zephaniah
3:9 , 10). These will not be compelled to come to Jerusalem to worship Yahweh
(Isaiah 2:2 ; Micah 4:1); they may worship Him "every one from his place" (Zephaniah
2:11), which is a step in the direction of the utterance of Jesus in John 4:21.
3. Messianic Prophecy:
The Messianic King is not mentioned by Zephaniah. Though he draws a sublime picture
of the glories of the Messianic age (Zephaniah 3:14 - 20), there is not a word
concerning the person of the Messianic King. Whatever is done is accomplished
by Yahweh Himself.
Cornms. on the Minor Prophets by Ewald, Pusey, Keil, Orelli, G. A. Smith (Expositor's
Bible); Driver (New Century); Eiselen; A. B. Davidson, Commentary on Nahum, Habakkuk,
and Zephaniah (Cambridge Bible); A. F. Kirkpatrick, Doctrine of the Prophets;
Eiselen, Prophecy and the Prophets; F. W. Farrar, "Minor Prophets," Men of the
Bible; S. R. Driver, Driver, Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament;
Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible (five volumes), article "Zephaniah, Book of";
Encyclopedia Biblica, article "Zephaniah."
F. C. Eiselen
bible commentary, bible reference, bible study, define, book of zephaniah, judgment, old testament, prophecy, promise of salvation, summary